• Fact Sheets

  • Website Resources

    Web Resources

    Disclaimer: Links to external websites are provided for convenience of reference only and are not intended as an endorsement by the NCSBY of the organization or individual operating the host web site or a warranty of any type regarding the host web site or the information on that site.

  • Books for Parents and Caregivers

    To download a PDF version of the Books for Parents and Caregivers, click here.


    • Human Sexuality, Sex Education

      Annunziata, J., & Nemiroff, M. (2003). Sex and babies: First facts. Washington, DC: Magination Press.

      Bailey, J. (2004). Sex, puberty, and all that stuff: A guide to growing up. Hauppauge, NY: Barron’s Educational Series.

      Berman, L. (2009). Talking to your kids about sex: Turning the “talk” into conversation for life. London: DK Publishing.

      Brown, L. K., & Brown, M. (1997). What’s the big secret? Talking about sex with girls and boys. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

      Colblentz, J. (1992). God’s will for my body; Guidance for adolescents. Harrisonburg: Christian Light Publications, Inc.

      Dunham, K. (2013). The boy’s body book: Everything you need to know for growing up you! Kennebunkport: Applesauce Press.

      Girard, L. W. (1984). My body is private. Morton Grove: Albert Whitman & Company.

      Gitchel, S. and Foster, L. (2005). Let’s talk about s-e-x. A guide for kids 9 – 12 and their parents, 2nd edition. Excelsior, MN: Book Peddlers.

      Goldman, L. (2010). Great answers to difficult questions about sex: What children need to know. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

      Gravelle, K., & Gravelle, J. (2006). The period book: Everything you don’t want to ask (but need to know). New York: Walker and Company.

      Gravelle, K., Castro, N., & Castro C. (1998). What’s going on down there? Answers to questions boys find hard to ask. New York: Walker and Company.

      Haffner, D. W. (1999). From diapers to dating: A parent’s guide to raising sexually healthy children. New York: Newmarket Press.

      Harris, R. H. (1994). Changing bodies, growing up, sex and sexual health; It’s perfectly normal. Cambridge: Candlewick Press.

      Harris, R. H. (1999). It's So Amazing!: A Book about Eggs, Sperm, Birth, Babies, and Families. Cambridge: Candlewick Press.

      Harris, R. H. (2006). It’s not the stork; A book about girls, boys, babies, bodies, families, and friends. Cambridge: Candlewick Press.

       

      Hickling, Meg. (2005). The new speaking of sex: What your children need to know and when they need to know it. Kelowna, BC, Canada: Wood Lake Publishing, Inc.

      Holmes, M. & Hutchinson, T. (2005). Girlology, A guide to stuff that matters, relationships, body talk, and girl power. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications.

      Holmes, M & Hutchinson, T. (2007). Girlology, Hang-ups, Hook-ups, and Holding out. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications.

      Johnson, T. C. (1999). Understanding Your Child’s Sexual Behavior: What’s Natural and Healthy. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.

      Johnston, D. (2015). Is this normal: MORE girls’ questions, answered by the editors of the care and keeping of you. Middleton, WI: American Girl Publishers. Jones, S. &

      Jones B. (1995). What’s the big deal? Why God cares about sex (Ages 8 – 11). Colorado Springs: Navpress Books & Bible Studies.

      Jones, S. & Jones, B. (1995). Facing the facts; The truth about sex and you (Ages 11-14). Colorado Springs: Navpress Books & Bible Studies.

      Jukes, M. (1998). Growing up it’s a girl thing; straight talk about first bras, first periods, and your changing body. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

      Kirberger, K. (2003). No body’s perfect; Stories by teens about body image, self-acceptance, and the search for identity. New York: Scholastic.

      Langford, L. (1998). The big talk; Talking to your child about sex and dating. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

      Lasser, M. (1999). Talking to your kids about sex; how to have a lifetime of age-appropriate conversations with your children about healthy sexuality. Colorado Springs: WaterBrook Press.

      Leman, K., and K. F. Bell. (2004). A chicken’s guide to talking turkey with your kids about sex. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.

      McCoy, K., & Wibbelsman, C. (2003). Growing and changing: A handbook for preteens. New York: Perigee Press.

      Madaras, L. & Madaras, A. (2000). The “what’s happening to my body?” Book for boys. A growing up guide for parents and sons. New York: Newmarket Press.

      Madaras, L. & Madaras, A. (2007). My body, myself: for boys. NY: NewMarket Press.

      Madaras, L. & Madaras, A. (2000). My body, myself: for girls. NY: NewMarket Press. Madaras, L. (2003). Ready, set, grow! A “what’s happening to my body?” Book for younger girls. New York: Newmarket Press.

      Marsh, C. S. (1998). Sex stuff for kids: A book of practical information and ideas for kids 7-17. Atlanta: Carole Marsh/Gallopade.

      Marsh, C.S. (1991). Sex stuff for Connecticut parents and teachers of kids 7-17. Atlanta: Carole Marsh/Gallopade.

      Mayle, P. (1975). “What’s happening to me?” An illustrated guide to puberty. New York: Kensington Publishing Corp.

      Mayle, P. (2000). “Where did I come from?” A guide for children and parents. New York: Kensington Publishing Corp.

      Richardson, J. & Schuster, M.A. (2003). Everything you never wanted your kids to know about sex (but were afraid they’d ask). New York: Crown Publishers.

      Roffman, Deborah M. (2001). Sex and sensibility: The thinking parent’s guide to talking sense about sex. New York: Perseus Publishing.

      Roffman, Deborah M. (2002). But how’d I get in there in the first place? Talking to your young child about sex. New York: Perseus Publishing.

      Royston, A. (1996). Where do babies come from? New York: DK Publishing.

      Salz, G. (2008). Amazing you! Getting smart about your private parts. New York: Puffin Press.

      Salz, G. (2009). Changing you! A guide to body changes and sexuality. New York: Puffin Press.

      Schaefer, V., and N. Bendell. (1998). The care and keeping of you: The body book for girls. Middleton, WI: Pleasant Company Publications.

      Schwartz, P. & Cappello, D. (2000). Ten talks parents must have with their children about sex and character. New York: Hyperion.

      Stoppard, M. (1997). Sex ed: Growing up, relationships, and sex. New York: DK Publishing.

      Vermond, K. (2013). Growing up inside and out. Berkeley, CA: Owlkids Books Inc.

       

       

    • Sex Education and Developmental Disabilities

      Aston, M. & Attwood, T. (2012). What men with Asperger Syndrome want to know about women, dating, and relationships. London, England: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

      Attwood, S. (2008). Making sense of sex: A forthright guide to puberty, sex, and relationships for people with Asperger's syndrome. London, England: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

      Buron, K. D. (2007). A 5 is against the law! Social boundaries: Straight up! An honest guide for teens and young adults. Shawnee Mission, KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Co.

      Couwenhoven, T. (2007). Teaching children with Down Syndrome about their bodies, boundaries, and sexuality. Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House, Inc.

      Davies, C & Dubie, M. (2012). Intimate relationships and sexual health: A curriculum for teaching adolescents/adults with high-functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders and other social challenges. Shanee Mission, KS: Autism Asperger Publishing Co.

      Dubin, N., Henault, I., Attwodd, T. (2014). The Autism Spectrum, sexuality, and the law: What every parent and professional needs to know. London, England: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

      Hartman, D. & Brangan, K. (2013). Sexuality and relationship education for adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Professional's Guide to Understanding, Preventing Issues, Supporting Sexuality, and Responding to Inappropriate Behaviors. London, England: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

      Heighway, S. & Webster, S. (2008). S.T.A.R.S.: Skills for assertiveness, relationship-building, and sexual awareness. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons Inc.

      Newport, J., Newport, M., & Bolick, T. (2002). Autism- Asperger's & sexuality: Puberty and Beyond. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons Inc.

      Nichols, S. (2009). Girls growing up with Autism Spectrum: What parents and professionals should know about the pre-teen and teenage years. London, England: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

      Wrobel, M. (2003). Taking care of myself: A hygiene, puberty, and personal curriculum for young people with Autism. Arlington, TX: Future Horizons Inc.

    • Problematic Sexual Behavior of Youth

       

      Allred, T. & Burns, G. (1999). Stop! Just for kids with sexual touching problems. Brandon, VT: Safer Society Press.

      Bonner, B. (2009). Taking action: Support for families of adolescents with illegal sexual behavior. Brandon, VT: Safer Society Press.

      Johnson, T. C. (2014). Helping children with sexual behavior problems—A guidebook for parents and substitute caregivers (4th ed.). South Pasadena, CA: Author.

      Johnson, T. C. (2013). Understanding Children’s Sexual Behavior – What’s Natural and Healthy. South Pasadena, CA: Author.

      Pithers, W. D., Gray, A. S., Cunningham, C., & Lane, S. (1993). From trauma to understanding: A guide for parents of children with sexual behavior problems. Brandon VT: Safer Society Press

      Silovsky, J. (2009). Taking Action: Support for Families of Children with Sexual Behavior Problems. Brandon, VT: Safer Society Press.

       

    • Sexual Abuse

       

      Aboff, M. (2003). Uncle Willie’s tickles: A child’s right to say no. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

      Adams, C. & Fay, J. (1992). Helping your child recover from sexual abuse. Vancouver, WA: University of Washington Press.

      Barth, A. (2009). Annabelle’s secret: A story about sexual abuse. Ann Arbor: Loving Healing Press.

      Brohl, K., and Potter, J. C. (2004). When your child has been molested: A parent’s guide to healing and recovery. Revised edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

      Dolgan, E. (2006). Please knock! Denver: Paros Press.

      Farber Strauss, S. (2013). Healing days: A guide for kids who have experienced trauma. Washington, DC: Magination Press.

      Hagans, K. B., and Case, J. (1988). When your child has been molested: A parent’s guide to healing and recovery. New York: Lexington Books.

      Herrerias, C. (1996). Teen to teen: A personal safety and sexual abuse prevention. Charlotte, NC: Kidsrights Inc.

      King, K. (2008). I said no! A kid-to-kid guide to keeping private parts private. Weaverville, CA: Boulden Publishing.

      Stauffer, L. (1999). Let’s talk about safety skills for kids. A personal safety activity book for parents and children. Hatfield, PA: Hope for Families, Inc.

      Stauffer, L., and E. Deblinger. (1999). Let’s talk about taking care of you! An educational book about body safety. Hatfield, PA: Hope for Families, Inc.

      Starishevsky, J. (2014). My body belongs to me: A book about body safety. Minneapolis: Free Spirit Publishing.

      Steele, W. (2003). A trauma is like no other experience. Gross Pointe Woods, MI: The National Institute for Trauma and Loss in Children. Steele, W. (1999). What parents need to know: Help for parents of grieving and traumatized children. Gross Pointe Woods, MI: The National Institute for Trauma and Loss in Children.

      Steele, W. (1999). You are not alone. Gross Pointe Woods, MI: The National Institute for Trauma and Loss in Children.

       

  • Bibliography

    To download a PDF version of the Books for Parents and Caregivers, click here.


    • Developmental Perspective

      Burton, D. L. (2000). Were adolescent sexual offenders children with sexual behavior problems? Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 12, 37-48.

      Chaffin, M., Letourneau, E., & Silovsky, J. F. (2002). Adults, adolescents, and children who sexually abuse children: A developmental perspective. In J. E. B. Myers, L. Berliner, J. Briere, C. Jenny, T. Hendrix, C. Jenny, & T. E. Reid. (Eds.), The APSAC handbook on child maltreatment (2nd ed., pp. 205-232). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      DeLamater, J., & Friedrich, W. (2002). Human sexual development. The Journal of Sex Research, 39(1), 10–14. Doshay, L.J. (1943). The Boy Sex Offender and His Later Career. New York: Grune and Stratton.

      Elkovitch, N., Latzman, R., Hansen, D. J., & Flood, M. F. (2009). Understanding child sexual behavior problems: A developmental psychopathology framework. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 586-598.

      Gordon, B.N., & Schroder, C.S. (1995). Sexuality: A developmental approach to problems. New York: Plenum Press.

      Gray, A., Pithers, W. D., Busconi, A., & Houchens, P. (1999). Developmental and etiological characteristics of children with sexual behavior problems: Treatment implications. Child Abuse & Neglect, 23(6), 601-621.Hembree-Kigin, T. L., & McNeil, C. (1995). Parent-child interaction therapy. New York: Plenum.

      Lussier, P. & Chouinard Thivierge, S. (in press). A developmental life course view of juvenile sexual offending: Key issues and assumptions. In S. Righthand, S. & W. Murphy (Eds.).The Safer Society Handbook of Assessment and Treatment with Adolescents who have Sexually Offended. Brandon, VT: Safer Society Press.

      Silovsky, J.F., & Swisher, L. M. (2008). Sexual development and sexual behavior problems. pp. 805-824. In M. L. Wolraich, P. Dworkin, D. Drotar, & Perrin, E. (Eds.) Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: Evidence and Practice. Philadelphia: Elsevier.

    • Sexual Development

      Bonner, B.L. (1999). When does sexual play suggest a problem? In H. Dubowitz and D. Depanfilis (Eds.), Handbook of child protection practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

      DeLamater, J., & Friedrich, W. (2002). Human sexual development. The Journal of Sex Research, 39, 10–14. doi:10.1080/00224490209552113

      Frayser, S. (2003). Cultural dimensions of childhood sexuality in United States. In J. Bancroft (ed.). Sexual development in childhood. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

      Friedrich, W.N., Fisher, J., Broughton, D., Houston, M., & Shafran, C. (1998). Normative sexual behavior in children: A contemporary sample. Pediatrics, 101, 1-8.

      Friedrich, W.N., Fisher, J.L., Dittner, C., Acton, R., Berliner, L., Butler, J., Damon, L., Davies, W. H., Gray, A., & Wright, J. (2001). Child Sexual Behavior Inventory: Normative, psychiatric, and sexual abuse comparisons. Child Maltreatment. 6(1), 37-49.

      Friedrich, W. N., Grambsch, P., Broughton, D., Kuiper, J., & Beilke, R.L. (1991). Normative sexual behavior in children. Pediatrics, 88, 456-464.

      Friedrich, W.N., Grambsch, P., Damon, L., Hewitt, S.K., Koverola, C., Lang, R.A., Wolfe, V., & Broughton, D. (1992). Child sexual behavior inventory: normative and clinical comparisons. Psychological Assessment, 4, 303-311.

      Friedrich, W. N., Sandfort, T. G., Oostveen, J., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (2000). Cultural differences in sexual behavior: 2-6 year old Dutch and American children. Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality, 12, 117-129.

      Friedrich, W. N., & Trane, S T. (2002). Sexual behavior in children across multiple settings. Child Abuse & Neglect. 26(3), 243-245.

      Friedrich, W. N., Whiteside, S.P., & Talley, N.J. (2004). Noncoersive sexual contact with similarly aged individuals, what is the impact? Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19, 1070-1084.

      Gökengin, D., Yamazhan, T., Özkaya, D., Aytuğ, S., Ertem, E., Arda, B., & Serter, D. (2003). Sexual knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors of students in Turkey. Journal of School Health, 73, 258-263.

      Gordon, B.N., Schoeder, C.S., & Abrams, M. (1990). Age and social-class differences in children's knowledge of sexuality. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19, 33-43.

      Hyde, J., & DeLamater, J. (1997). Understanding human sexuality (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

      Johnson, T. C., & Aoki, W.T. (1993). Sexual behaviors of latency age children in residential treatment. Sexual Abuse and Residential Treatment, 11, 1-22

      Kellogg, N. D. (2009). Clinical report: The evaluation of sexual behaviors in children. Pediatrics, 124, 992-998.

      Lamb, S., & Coakley, M. (1993). “Normal” childhood sexual play and games: Differentiating play from abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 17, 515-526.

      Larsson, I. & Svedin, C. G. (2001). Sexual behaviour in Swedish preschool children, as observed by their parents. Acta Paediatrica, 90, 436-333.

      Larsson, I., Svedin, C. G. & Friedrich, W. N. (2000). Differences and similarities in sexual behaviour among pre-schoolers in Sweden and USA. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 54, 251-257.

      Linblad, F. (1995). Preschoolers' sexual behavior and daycare centers: An epidemiological study. Child and Family Social Work, 19, 569-577.

      Martinson, F. (1997). Sexual development in infancy and childhood. In G. Ryan & S. Lane (Eds.), Juvenile sexual offending: Causes, consequences, and correction (Rev. ed., pp. 36-58). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

      Peltzer, K., & Likwa, R. (1991). Attitude towards sexual behaviour and sex education among primary school children in Lusaka, Zambia. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 1, 65-71.

      Rutter, M. (1971). Normal psychosexual development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 11, 259-283.

      Ryan, G. (1990). Sexual behavior in childhood: Normal and deviant. In J. McNamara and B. McNamara (Eds.). Adoption and Childhood Sexual Abuse.

      Sandfort, T. G. M., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (2000). Sexual behavior in Dutch and Belgian children as observed by their mother. Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 12, 105-115.

      Sandnabba, N.K., Santtila, P., Wannas, M., &Krook, K. (2003). Age and gender specific behaviors in children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27, 579-605.

      Santtila, P., Sandnabba, N.K., Wannas, M., & Krook, K. (2005). Multivariate structure of sexual behaviors in children: Associations with age, social competence, life stressors and behavioral disorders. Early Child Development and Care, 175, 3-­21.

      Shoveller, J. A., Johnson, J., Langille, D., & Mitchell, T. (2004). Socio-cultural influences on young people’s sexual development. Social Science & Medicine, 59, 473-487.

      Thigpen, J. W., Pinkston, E. M., & Mayefsky, J. (2003). Normative sexual behavior of African American children: Preliminary finding. In J. Bancroft (ed.). Sexual development in childhood. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

      Zimmer-Gembeck M.J. & Helfand , M. (2008). Ten years of longitudinal research on U.S. adolescent sexual behavior: Developmental correlates of sexual intercourse, and the importance of age, gender and ethnic background. Developmental Review 28, 153–224.

       

    • Youth with Problematic Sexual Behavior

      Araji, S. K. (1997). Sexually aggressive children: Coming to understand them. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

      Baker, A.J.L., Schneiderman, M., & Parker, R. (2002). A survey of problematic sexualized behaviors in the New York City child welfare system: Estimates of problem, impact on services, and need for training. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 10(4), 67-80.

      Barbaree, H. E., & Langton, C. M. (2006). The effects of child sexual abuse and family environment. In Barbaree, H. E., & Marshall, W. L. The juvenile sex offender (2nd ed.). (pp. 58-76). New York: Guilford.

      Bonner, B. (2008). Adolescents with illegal sexual behavior: Current knowledge. American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. Special issue on Adolescent Illegal Sexual Behavior (AISB), 20 (2), 5-8.

      Bonner, B.L., & Fahey, W.E. (1998). Children with aggressive sexual behavior. In N.N. Singh & A.S.W. Winton (Eds.), Comprehensive Clinical Psychology. Special Population (Vol. 9). Oxford, England: Elsevier Science, pp 453-466.

      Burton, D. L., Miller, D. L., & Shill, C. T. (2002). A social learning theory comparison of the sexual victimization of adolescent sexual offenders and nonsexual offending male delinquents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 26, 893-907.

      Chaffin, M., Berliner, L., Block, R., Johnson, T. C., Friedrich, W., Louis, D., Lyon, T. D., Page, J., Prescott, D., & Silovsky, J.F. (2008). Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers Task Force Report on Children with Sexual Behavior Problems. Child Maltreatment, 13, 199-218.

      Elliott, D.M., & Smiljanich, K. (1994). Sex offending among juveniles: Development and response. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 8, 101-105.

      Finkelhor, D. (1984). Child Sexual Abuse: New Theory and Research. New York: Free Press.

      Friedrich, W. N., Davies, W. H., Feher, E., & Wright, J. (2003). Sexual behavior problems in preteen children: Developmental, ecological, and behavioral correlates. Annuals of the New York Academy of Science, 989, 95-104.

      Friedrich, W.N., & Lueke, W. (1988). Young school-age sexually aggressive children. Professional Psychology - Research & Practice. 19, 155-164.

      Friedrich, W. N., & Sim, L. (2006). Attachment styles and sexual abuse. In R. E. Longo & D. S. Prescott (Eds.), Current perspectives: Working with sexually aggressive youth and youth with sexual behavior problems (pp. 369-382). Holyoke, MA: NEARI.

      Gray, A., Busconi, A., Houchens, P., & Pithers, W. D. (1997). Children with sexual behavior problems and their caregivers: Demographics, functioning, and clinical patterns. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 9, 267-290.

      Hagan, M. P., Gust-Brey, K. L., Cho, M. E., & Dow, E. (2001). Eight-year comparative analyses of adolescent rapists, adolescent child molesters, other adolescent delinquents, and the general population. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 45(3), 314-324. doi:10.1177/0306624X01453004

      Hall, D. K., Mathews, F., & Pearce, J. (1998). Factors associated with sexual behavior problems in young sexually abused children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22(10), 1045-1063.

      Hall, D., Mathews, F., Pearce, J., Sarlo-McGarvey, N., & Gavin, D. (1996). The development of sexual behavior problems in children and youth. Toronto, Ontario: Central Toronto Youth Services.

      Hunter, J. A. (2006). Understanding diversity in juvenile sexual offenders: Implications for assessment, treatment, and legal management. In R. E. Longo & D. S. Prescott (Eds.), Current perspectives: Working with sexually aggressive youth and youth with sexual behavior problems (pp. 63-77). Holyoke, MA: NEARI Press.

      Johnson, T. C. (1988). Child perpetrators—Children who molest other children: Preliminary findings. Child Abuse & Neglect, 12, 219-229.

      Johnson, T.C. (1990). Children who act out sexually. In J. McNamara & B.H. McNamara (Eds.). Adoption and Sexually Abused Child (pp. 63-73). University of S. Maine.

      Johnson, T. C., & Doonan, R. (2006). Children twelve and under with sexual behavior problems: What we know in 2005 that we didn’t know in 1985. In R. E. Longo & D. S. Prescott (Eds.), Current perspectives: Working with sexually aggressive youth and youth with sexual behavior problems (pp. 79-118). Holyoke, MA: NEARI.

      Jones, D. P. H. (1999). Editorial: Children with sexual behavior problems. Child Abuse and Neglect, 23(6), 597-600.

      Knight, Raymond A.; Sims-Knight, Judith E. (2004). Testing an etiological model for male juvenile sexual offending against females. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 13(3-4), 33-55. doi:10.1300/J070v13n03_03

      Langstrom, N., Grann, M., & Lichtenstein, P. (2002). Genetic and environmental influences on problematic masturbatory behavior in children: A study of same-sex twins. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 343-350.

      Lanyado, M., Hodges, J., Bentovim, A., Andreou, C., et al. (1995). Understanding boys who sexually abuse other children. Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, 9, 231-242.

      Letourneau, E., Schoewald, S. K., & Sheidow, A. J. (2004). Children and adolescents with sexual behavior problems. Child Maltreatment 9(1), 49-61

      Marshall, W. L. (1996). The sexual offender: Monster, victim, or everyman? Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 8, 317-335. doi:10.1007/BF02260166 Milloy, C. D. (June, 1994). A comparative study of juvenile sex offenders and non-sex offenders. Washington State Institute for Public Policy.

      National Center on Sexual Behavior of Youth (2003). What Research Shows About Adolescent Sex Offenders, 1. www.ncsby.org.

      Pithers, W. D., & Gray, A. S. (1993). Pre-adolescent sexual abuse research project: Research grantees status report. Washington, DC: National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect.

      Pithers, W.D., & Gray, A.S. (1998). The other half of the story: Children with sexual behavior problems. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 4, 200-217.

      Pithers, W. D., Gray, A., Busconi, A., & Houchens, P. (1998). Caregivers of children with sexual behavior problems: Psychological and family functioning. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22(2), 129-141.

      Righthand, Orooji, & Hecker, (2009, October). Are sex offending youths in the justice system more “dangerous” than youths diverted from juvenile justice? Paper presented at the 28th Annual Meeting of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers, Dallas, Texas.

      Righthand, S. & Welch, C. (2001). Youths who have sexually offended. A review of the professional literature. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Righthand, S. & Welch, C. (2004). Characteristics of youth who sexually offend: Theoretical issues. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 13(3/4), 15-32.

      Righthand, S., Welch, C., Carpenter, E. M., Young, G. S., & Scoular, R. J. (2001). Sex offending by Maine youth: Their offenses and characteristics (Part 1 & Part II). Augusta, Maine: Department of Corrections and Department of Human Services.

      Ronis, S.T., & Borduin, C.M. (2007). Individual, family, peer, and academic characteristics of male juvenile sexual offenders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 35(2), 153-163.

      Rubinstein, M., Yeager, C. A., Goodstein, C., & Lewis, D. O. (1993). Sexually assaultive male juveniles: A follow-up. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 262-265.

      Sabina, C., Wolak, J.D., Finkelhor, D. (2008). The nature and dynamics of internet pornography exposure for youth. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 11(6), 691-693. doi:10.1089/cpb.2007.0179

      Seto, M. & Lalumiere, M. (2006). Conduct problems and juvenile sexual offenders: A comprehensive meta-analysis. In H. E. Barbaree & W. L. Marshall (Eds.), The juvenile sex offender (2nd ed., pp. 166–188). New York: Guilford.

      Silovsky, J., & Bonner, B. L. (2003). Sexual behavior problems. In T. H. Ollendick & C. S. Schroeder (Eds.), Encyclopedia of clinical child and pediatric psychology (pp. 589-591). New York: Kluwer Press.

      Silovsky, J. F., & Niec, L. (2002). Characteristics of young children with sexual behavior problems: A pilot study. Child Maltreatment, 7, 187-197.

      Swisher, L., Silovsky, J.F., Stewart, J., & Pierce, K. (2008). Children with sexual behavior problems. Juvenile and Family Court Journal, 59. 49-69.

      Veneziano, C., & Veneziano, L. (2002). Adolescent sex offenders: A review of the literature. Trauma Violence Abuse, 3(4): 247 - 260.

      Wiebush, R. G. (1996). Juvenile sex offenders: Characteristics, system response and recidivism: Final Report. National Council on Crime and Delinquency. Washington, DC: OJJDP

      Weinrott, M. (1996). Juvenile sexual aggression: A critical review. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado, Institute for Behavioral Sciences, Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence.

    • Types and Co Occurring Concerns

      Becker, J. V., & Kaplan, M. S. (1988). The assessment of adolescent sexual offenders. In T. H. Ollendick & R. J. Prinz (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology, 19, 177-197.

      Bidwell, R. (2003, January). Adolescent sexuality. Case Based Pediatrics Chapter. Retrieved from http://www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pedtext/s20c06.html

      Blanchard, R., Cantor, J. M., & Robichaud, L. K. (2006). Biological factors in the development of sexual deviance and aggression in males. In H. E. Barbaree & W. L. Marshall (Eds.), The juvenile sex offender (2nd ed., pp. 77–104). New York: Guilford.

      Brown, L. K.; Hadley, W., Stewart, A.; Lescano, C.; Whiteley, L., Donenberg, G., DiClemente, R. (2010). Psychiatric disorders and sexual risk among adolescents in mental health treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(4), 590-597.

      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2009. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, 57.

      Chaffin, M.,Berliner, L., Block, R., Johnson, T. C., Friedrich, W., Louis, D., Lyon, T. D., Page, J., Prescott, D., & Silovsky, J.F. (2008). Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers Task Force Report on Children with Sexual Behavior Problems. Child Maltreatment, 13, 199-218.

      Hall, D. K., Mathews, F., & Pearce, J. (2002). Sexual behavior problems in sexually abused children: A preliminary typology. Child Abuse and Neglect, 26, 289-312. 125.

      Hunter, J. A. (2006). Understanding diversity in juvenile sexual offenders: Implications for assessment, treatment, and legal management. In R. E. Longo & D. S. Prescott (Eds.), Current perspectives: Working with sexually aggressive youth and youth with sexual behavior problems (pp. 63-77). Holyoke, MA: NEARI Press.

      Hunter, J., Figueredo, A., & Malamuth, N. (2010). Developmental pathways into social and sexual deviance. Journal of Family Violence, 25(2), 141-148. doi:10.1007/s10896-009-9277-9

      Hunter, J. A., Figueredo, A. J., Malamuth, N. M., & Becker, J. V. (2003). Juvenile sex offenders: Toward the development of a typology. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 15, 27-48.

      Hyde, J., & DeLamater, J. (1997). Understanding human sexuality (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

      Knight, R. A., & Prentky, R. A. (1993). Exploring characteristics for classifying juvenile sex offenders. In H. E. Barbaree, W. L. Marshall, & S. M.Hudson (Eds.), The juvenile sex offender, (pp. 45-83). New York: Guilford Press.

      Moffitt, T.E. (1993) “Life-course persistent” and “adolescent-limited” anti-social behaviour: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674-701.

      Murphy, W. (1997). Children with sexual behavior problems: An empirically derived taxonomy. Forum, 9(4), 10.

      O’Brien, M. & Bera, W. (1986). Adolescent sexual offenders: A descriptive typology. A News Letter of the National Family Life Education Network, 1, 1-5.

      Pierce, K. (2008). Typology of AISB: An update. American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. Special issue on Adolescent Illegal Sexual Behavior (AISB), 20(2), 9-11.

      Pithers, W. D., Gray, A., Busconi, A., & Houchens, P. (1998). Children with sexual behavior problems: Identification of five distinct child types and related treatment considerations. Child Maltreatment, 3(4), 384-406.

      Pithers, W.D., Gray, A., Busconi, A., & Houchens. P. (1998). Five empirically-derived subtypes of children with sexual behavior problems: Characteristics potentially related to juvenile delinquency and adult criminality. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 19(1), 49-67.

      Rasmussen, L. A. (2004). Differentiating youth who sexually abuse: Applying a multidimensional framework when assessing subtypes. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 13(3/4), 57-82.

      Righthand, S. & Welch, C. (2001). Youths who have sexually offended: A review of the professional literature. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

      Righthand, S., Welch, C., Carpenter, E. M., Young, G. S., & Scoular, R. J. (2001). Sex offending by Maine youth: Their offenses and characteristics (Part 1 & Part II). Augusta, ME: Department of Corrections and Department of Human Services.

      Seto, M. & Lalumiere, M. (2006). Conduct problems and juvenile sexual offenders: A comprehensive meta-analysis. In H. E. Barbaree & W. L. Marshall (Eds.), The juvenile sex offender (2nd ed., pp. 166–188). New York: Guilford.

      Zimmer-Gembeck M. J. & Helfand , M. (2008). Ten years of longitudinal research on U.S. adolescent sexual behavior: Developmental correlates of sexual intercourse, and the importance of age, gender and ethnic background. Developmental Review, 28, 153–224. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2007.06.001

    • Incidence and Prevalence of Sexual Behaviors

      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2008). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States, 2007. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, 57.

      Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R., & Chaffin, M. (2009). Juveniles who commit sex offenses against minors. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Bulletin, US Dept of Justice NCJ 227763.

      Seto, M. C., Kjellgren, C., Priebe, G., Bossige, S., Svedin, C. G., & Langstrom, N. (2010). Sexual victimization and sexually coercive behavior: A population study of Swedish and Norwegian male yough. Child Maltreatment, 15, 219-228. DOI: 10.1177/1077559510367937

      Widom, C.S. & Ames, M.A. (1994). Criminal consequences of childhood sexual victimization. Child Abuse & Neglect, 18, 303-318.

    • Recidivism

      Aebi, M., Plattner, B., Steinhausen, H., & Bessler, C. (2011). Predicting sexual and nonsexual recidivism in a consecutive sample of juveniles convicted of sexual offenses. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 23, 456-473. doi:10.1177/1079063210384634

      Ageton, S. S. (1983). Sexual assault among adolescents. Lexington, MA: Lexington

      Borowsky, I. W., Hogan, M., Ireland, M. (1997). Adolescent sexual aggression: Risk and protective factors. Pediatrics, 100(6).

      Carpentier, J., & Proulx, J. (2011). Correlates of recidivism among adolescents who have sexually offended. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 23, 434-455. doi:10.1177/1079063211409950

      Caldwell, M. F. (2002). What we do not know about juvenile sexual reoffense risk. Child Maltreatment, 7, 291–302. doi:10.1177/107755902237260

      Caldwell, M. F. (2007). Sexual offense adjudication and sexual recidivism among juvenile offenders. Sexual Abuse: Journal of Research & Treatment, 19, 107-113. doi:10.1177/107906320701900203

      Caldwell, M. F. (2010). Study characteristics and recidivism base rates in juvenile sex offender recidivism. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 54(2), 197-212.

      Caldwell, M. F. (2016, July 18). Quantifying the decline in juvenile sexual recidivism rates. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 22(4), 414-426. doi: 10.1037/law0000094

      Carpentier, M., Silovsky, J.F. & Chaffin, M. (2006). Randomized trial of treatment for children with sexual behavior problems: Ten year follow-up. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(3), 482-488. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.74.3.482

      Casey, E.A., Beadnell, B., Lindhorst, T.P. (2009). Predictors of Sexually Coercive Behavior in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescent Males. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24(7), 1129-1147. doi:10.1177/0886260508322198

      Daversa, M.T., & Knight, R.A. (2007). A structural examination of the predictors of sexual coercion against children in adolescent sexual offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 3(10), 1313-1333. doi:10.1177/0093854807302411

      Doshay, L.J. (1943). The Boy Sex Offender and His Later Career. New York: Grune and Stratton.

      Gerhold, C.K., Browne, K.D., & Beckett, R. (2007). Predicting recidivism in adolescent sexual offenders. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 12(4), 427-438.

      Gretton, H. M., McBride, M., Hare, R. D., O’Shaughnessy, R., & Kumka, G. (2001). Psychopathy and recidivism in adolescent sex offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 28, 427-499. doi:10.1177/009385480102800403

      Hagan, & Gust-Brey (2000). A ten-year longitudinal study of adolescent perpetrators of sexual assault against children. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 31(1/2), 117-126.

      Hanson, R. K., & Bussiere, M. T. (1998). Predicting relapse: A meta-analysis of sexual offender recidivism studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 348-362.

      Hanson, & Harris. (2000). Where should we intervene? Dynamic predictors of sex offenses recidivism. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 27, 6-35. doi:10.1177/0093854800027001002

      Hanson, R. K., & Morton-Bourgon, K. (2005). The characteristics of persistent sexual offenders: A meta-analysis of recidivism studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(6), 1154-1163. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.73.6.1154

      Kenny, D. T., Keogh, T. & Seidler, K. (2001). Predictors of recidivism in Australian juvenile sex offenders: Implications for treatment. Sexual Abuse: Journal of Research and Treatment, 13, 131-148. doi:10.1177/107906320101300206

      Långström, N. (2002). Long-term follow-up of criminal recidivism in young sex offenders: Temporal patterns and risk factors. Psychology, Crime and Law, 8, 41-58. doi:10.1080/10683160208401808

      Långström, N., & Grann, M. (2000). Risk for criminal recidivism among young sex offenders. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15, 855-871. doi:10.1177/088626000015008005

      Letourneau, E., Chapman, J. & Schoenwald, S. (2008). Treatment outcome and future offending by youth with sexual behavior problems. Child Maltreatment.

      Maine Department of Corrections. (2004, October). Juvenile Recidivism Report 1998 – 2001. Portland, Maine: Maine Statistical Analysis Center: http://muskie.usm.maine.edu/justiceresearch

      McCann, K., & Lussier, P. (2008). Antisocial, Sexual Deviance and Sexual Recidivism in Juvenile Sexual offenders. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 6(4), 363-385. doi:10.1177/1541204008320260

      Miner, M.H. (2002). Factors associated with recidivism in juveniles: An analysis of serious juvenile sex offenders. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 39, 421-436. doi:10.1177/002242702237287

      Nisbet, I. A., Wilson, P. H. & Smallbone, S. W. (2004). A prospective longitudinal study of sexual recidivism among adolescent sex offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 16, 223-234. doi:10.1177/107906320401600304

      Parks, G.A. & Bard, D. E. (2006). Risk factors for adolescent sex offender recidivism: Evaluation of predictive factors and comparison of three groups based upon victim type. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 18(4), 319-342. doi:10.1177/107906320601800402

      Prentky, R., Harris, B., Frizzell, K., & Righthand, S. (2000). An actuarial procedure for assessing risk in juvenile sexual offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 12, 71–93. doi:10.1177/107906320001200201

      Prentky, R.A., Li, N-C., Righthand, S., Schuler, A., Cavanaugh, D., & Lee, A.F. (2010). Assessing risk of sexually abusive behavior among youth in a child welfare sample. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 28, 24-45. doi:10.1002/bsl.920

      Reitzel, L.R., & Reitzel, L.R. (2006). The effectiveness of sexual offender treatment for juveniles as measured by recidivism: A meta-analysis. Sexual Abuse, 18, 401-421. doi:10.1177/107906320601800407

      Righthand, S. & Welch, C. (2001). Youths who have sexually offended. A review of the professional literature. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

      Sandler, J. C., & Freeman, N. J. (2009). Female sex offender recidivism: A large-scale empirical analysis sexual abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 21, 455–473. doi:10.1177/1079063209347898

      Schram, D. D., Milloy, C. D., & Rowe, W. E. (1991). Juvenile sex offenders: A follow up study of reoffense behavior. Washington State Institute for Public Policy, Urban Policy Research and Cambie Group International.

      Sipe, R., Jensen, E. L., & Everett, R. S. (1998). Adolescent sexual offenders grown up: Recidivism in young adulthood. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 25(1), 109-124. doi:10.1177/0093854898025001007

      Vandiver, D.M. (2006). A prospective analysis of juvenile male sex offenders: Characteristics and recidivism rates as adults. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21(5), 673-688. doi:10.1177/0886260506287113

      Waite, D. Keller, A., McGarvey, E.L., Wieckowski, E., Pinkerton, R., & Brown, G.L. (2005). Juvenile Sex Offender Re-Arrest Rates for Sexual, Violent Nonsexual and Property Crimes: A 10-Year Follow-Up. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, Vol. 17(3), 313-331. doi: 10.1177/107906320501700305

      Walker, D.F., McGovern, S.K., Poey, E.L., & Otis, K.E. (2004). Treatment effectiveness for male adolescent sexual offenders: A meta-analysis and review. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 13, 281-294.

      Worling, J. R., & Curwen, T. (2001). Estimate of risk of adolescent sexual offense recidivism (ERASOR; Version 2.0). Juveniles and children who sexually abuse: Frameworks for assessment, 372-397.

      Worling, J. R., & Långström, N. (2003). Assessment of criminal recidivism risk with adolescents who have offended sexually: A review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 4(4), 341-362.

      Worling, J. R., & Långström, N. (2006). Risk of sexual recidivism in adolescents who offend sexually: Correlates and assessment. In H. E. Barbaree & W. L. Marshall (Eds.), The juvenile sex offender (2nd ed., pp. 219-247). New York: Guilford.

      Worling, J. R., Litteljohn, A., & Bookalam, D. (2010). 20-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study of Specialized Treatment for Adolescents Who Offended. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 28, 46-57. doi:10.1002/bsl.912

      Zimring, F., Jennings, W. G., Piquero, A., & Hays, S. (2009). Investigating the continuity of sex offending: Evidence from the second Philadelphia birth cohort. Justice Quarterly, 26, 58-76. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9133.2007.00451.x

    • Girls with Problematic Sexual Behaviors

      Bumby, K. M., Halstenson, N., & Bumby, N. H. (1997). Adolescent female sexual offenders. In B. K. Schwartz & H. R. Cellini (Eds.), The Sex Offender: New Insights, Treatment, Innovations, & Legal Developments (Vol. 2, pp. 10.1-10.16). Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute.

      Cosentino, C.E., Meyer-Bahlburg, H.F.L., Alpert, J.L., Weinberg, S.L., et al. (1995). Sexual behavior problems and psychopathology symptoms in sexually abused girls. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 1033-1042.

      Gannon, T.A., & Cortoni, F. (Eds.). (2010). Female Sexual Offenders: Theory, Assessment and Treatment. Chichester: Chichester, Angleterre: Wiley-Blackwell.

      Fehrenbach, P. A., & Monastersky, C. (1988). Characteristics of female adolescent sexual offenders. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 58, 148-151.

      Hunter, J. A., Lexier, L. J., Goodwin, D. W., & Browne, P. A. (1993). Psychosocial, attitudinal, and developmental characteristics of adolescent female sexual perpetrators in a residential setting. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 2, 317-326.

      Johnson, T. C. (1989). Female child perpetrators: Children who molest other children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 13, 571-585.

      Kubik, E. K., Hecker, J. E., & Righthand, S. (2003). Adolescent females who have sexually offended: A comparison with adolescent males who have sexually offended. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 11(3), 63-84.

      Kubik, E. K., Hecker, J. E., (2005). Cognitive distortions about sex and sexual offending: a comparison of sex offending girls, delinquent girls, and girls from the community. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 14(4), 43-69.

      Lane, S. (1997). Special populations: Children, females, the developmentally disabled, and violent youth. In G. Ryan & S. Lane (Eds.), Juvenile sexual offending: Causes, consequences, and correction (Rev. ed., pp. 322-359). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

      Mathews, R., Hunter, Jr., J. A., & Vuz, J. (1997). Juvenile female sexual offenders: Clinical characteristics and treatment issues. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 9(3), 187-200.

      Ray, J. A., & English, D. J. (1995). Comparison of female and male children with sexual behavior problems. Journal of Youth and Adolescents, 24(4), 439-451.

      Roe-Sepowitz, D.E., & Krysik, J. (2008) Examining the sexual offenses of female juveniles: The relevance of childhood maltreatment. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Mental Health and Social Justice, 78, 405-412. doi:10.1037/a0014310

      Sandler, J. C., & Freeman, N. J. (2009). Female sex offender recidivism: A large-scale empirical analysis sexual abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 21, 455–473. doi:10.1177/1079063209347898

      Schmidt, S.R. (2008). Adolescent girls with illegal sexual behavior. American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. Special issue on Adolescent Illegal Sexual Behavior (AISB), 20 (2), 12-13.

      Schwartz, B. K., Cavanaugh, D., Pimental, A., Prentky, R. (2006). Descriptive study of precursors to sex offending among 813 boys and girls: Antecedent life experiences. Victims & Offenders, 1, 61-77. doi:10.1080/15564880500498986

      Vandiver, D. M. (2006). A prospective analysis of juvenile male sex offenders: Characteristics and recidivism rates as adults. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21, 673-688. doi:10.1177/0886260506287113

    • How do Youth Develop Problematic Sexual Behaviors?

      Burton, D. L. (2003). The relationship between the sexual victimization of and the subsequent sexual abuse by male adolescents. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 20, 277-296. doi:10.1023/A:1024556909087

      Burton, D. (2008). An exploratory evaluation of the contribution of personality and childhood sexual victimization to the development of sexually abusive behavior. Sexual Abuse: Journal of Research & Treatment, 20(1), 102-115. doi:10.1177/1079063208315352

      Casey, E.A., Beadnell, B., Lindhorst, T.P. (2009). Predictors of Sexually Coercive Behavior in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescent Males. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24(7), 1129-1147. doi:10.1177/0886260508322198

      Chaffin, M., Berliner, L., Block, R., Johnson, T. C., Friedrich, W., Louis, D., Lyon, T. D., Page, J., Prescott, D., & Silovsky, J.F. (2008). Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers Task Force Report on Children with Sexual Behavior Problems. Child Maltreatment, 13, 199-218. doi:10.1177/1077559507306718

      Elkovitch, N., Latzman, R., Hansen, D. J., & Flood, M. F. (2009). Understanding child sexual behavior problems: A developmental psychopathology framework. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 586-598.

      Friedrich, W. N. (1993). Sexual victimization and sexual behavior in children: A review of recent literature. Child Abuse and Neglect, 17, 59-66.

      Friedrich, W.N. (2007). Children with sexual behavior problems: Family-based, attachment-focused therapy. NYC: Norton.

      Hummel, P., Thomke, V., Oldenburger, H. A., & Specht, F. (2000). Males adolescent sex offenders against children: Similarities and differences between those offenders with and those without a history of sexual abuse. Journal of Adolescence, 23, 305-317. doi:10.1006/jado.2000.0316

      Hunter, J. A., Gilbertson, S. A., Vedros, D., & Morton, M. (2004). Strengthening community-based programming for juvenile sex offenders: Key concepts and paradigm shifts. Child Maltreatment, 9, 177-189. doi:10.1177/1077559504264261

      Johnson, T. C. (2002). Some considerations about sexual abuse and children with sexual behavior problems. Trauma and Sexuality, 3, 83-105.

      Knight, R. A., & Prentky, R. A. (1993). Exploring characteristics for classifying juvenile sex offenders. In H. E. Barbaree, W. L. Marshall, & S. M. Hudson (Eds.), The juvenile sex offender, (pp. 45-83). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

      McNichol, S., & McGregor, K.J. (1999). Exploring the link between sexualized behaviour and sexual abuse in a clinical setting. Child Abuse Review, 8, 339-348.

      Merrick, M., Litrownik, A., Everson, M., & Cox, C. (2008) Beyond sexual abuse: The impact of other maltreatment experiences on sexualized behaviors. Child Maltreatment, 13, 122- 132.

      Rasmussen, L.A., Burton, J.E., & Christopherson, B.J. (1992). Precursors to offending and the trauma outcome process in sexually reactive children. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 1, 33-48.

      Righthand, S. & Welch, C. (2001). Youths who have sexually offended. A review of the professional literature. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

      Righthand, S. & Welch, C. (2004). Characteristics of youth who sexually offend. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 13, 15-32.

      Righthand, S., Welch, C., Carpenter, E. M., Young, G. S., & Scoular, R. J. (2001). Sex offending by Maine youth: Their offenses and characteristics (Part 1 & Part II). Augusta, ME: Department of Corrections and Department of Human Services.

      Ronis, S.T., & Borduin, C.M. (2007). Individual, family, peer, and academic characteristics of male juvenile sexual offenders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 35, 153-163. doi:10.1007/s10802-006-9058-3

      Satlter, D. M., D., Richards, M., Talbot, T., Hodges, J., Bentovim, A., et al. (2003). Development of sexually abusive behavior in sexually victimized males: A longitudinal study. Lancet, 381, 471-476.

      Seto, M. C. & Lalumière, M. L. (2010). What is so special about male asolescent sexual offending? A review and test of explanations through meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 526-575. doi:10.1037/a0019700

      Simon, V. & Feiring C. (2008). Sexual anxiety and eroticism predict the development of sexual problems in youth with a history of sexual abuse. Child Maltreatment, 13, 167-181.

      Tarren-Sweeney, M. (2008). Predictors of problematic sexual behavior among children with complex maltreatment histories. Child Maltreatment, 13, 182-199.

      Veneziano, C., & Veneziano, L. (2002). Adolescent Sex Offenders: A Review of the Literature. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 3, 247-260. doi:10.1177/1524838002237329

    • Risks and Protective Factors

      Cicchetti, D. (2010). Resilience under conditions of extreme stress: a multilevel perspective.  World Psychiatry, 9(3), 145-154.

      Gilgun, J. (2006). Children and adolescents with problematic sexual behaviors: Lessons from research on resilience. In R. E. Longo & D. S. Prescott (Eds.), Current perspectives: Working with sexually aggressive youth and youth with sexual behavior problems (pp. 383-394). Holyoke, MA: NEARI.

      Hanson, R. K., & Morton-Bourgon, K. (2005). The characteristics of persistent sexual offenders: A meta-analysis of recidivism studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 1154-1163. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.73.6.1154

      Heilbrun, K., Lee, R. J., Cottle, C. C (2005). Risk factors and intervention outcomes: Meta-analyses of juvenile offending. In: K. Heilbrun, N.E.S. Goldstein, & R.E. Redding, Juvenile delinquency: Prevention, assessment, & intervention, (pp. 111-133). New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.

      Henggeler S. W., Letourneau, E. J., Chapman, J. E., Borduin, C. M., Schewe, P.A., & McCart, M. R. (2009). Mediators of change for multisystemic therapy with juvenile sexual offenders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 451-62. doi:10.1037/a0013971

      Hunter, J. A., Figueredo, A. J., Malamuth, N. M., & Becker, J. V. (2003). Juvenile sex offenders: Toward the development of a typology. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 15, 27-48. doi:10.1023/A:1020663723593

      Kahn, T. J., & Chambers, H. J. (1991). Assessing reoffense risk with juvenile sexual offenders. Child Welfare, LXX, 333-345.

      Knight, R. A., & Prentky, R. A. (1993). Exploring characteristics for classifying juvenile sex offenders. In H. E. Barbaree, W. L. Marshall, & S. M. Hudson (Eds.), The juvenile sex offender, (pp. 45-83). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

      Luthar, S.S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71, 543–562.

      McCann, K., & Lussier, P. (2008). Antisocial, sexual deviance and sexual recidivism in juvenile sexual offenders. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 6, 363-385. doi:10.1177/1541204008320260

      Schram, D. D., Milloy, C. D., & Rowe, W. E. (1991). Juvenile sex offenders: A follow up study of reoffense behavior. Olympia, WA: Washington State Institute for Public Policy, Urban Policy Research and Cambie Group International.

      Seto, M. C., Kjellgren, C., Priebe, G., Bossige, S., Svedin, C. G., & Langstrom, N. (2010). Sexual victimization and sexually coercive behavior: A population study of Swedish and Norwegian male yough. Child Maltreatment, 15, 219-228. DOI: 10.1177/1077559510367937

      Seto, M., & Lalumiere, M.L. (2010). What is so special about male adolescent sexual offending? A review and test of explanations throguh meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 136. 526-575. DOI: 10.1037/a0019700

      Worling, J. R., & Langstrom, N. (2006). Risk of sexual recidivism in adolescents who offend sexually: Correlates and assessment. In H. E. Barbaree & W. L. Marshall (Eds.), The juvenile sex offender (2nd ed., pp. 219-247). New York: Guilford.

    • Special Populations and Developmental Delays

      Adams, J., McClellan, J., Douglass, D., McCurry, C., & Storck, M. (1995). Sexually inappropriate behaviors in seriously mentally ill children and adolescents. Child Abuse and Neglect, 19, 555-568.

      Ballan, M. S., (2010). Parental perspectives of communication about sexuality in families of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 676-684.

      Blanchett, W. J. & Wolfe, P. S. (2002). A review of sexuality educaiton curricula: Meeting the sexuality education needs of individuals with mdoerate and severe intellectual disabilities. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 27, 43-57.

      Brown-Lavoie, S. M., Viecili, M. A., & Weiss, J. A. (2015). Sexual knowledge and victimization in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 2185-2196

      Davis, T. N., Machalicek, W., Scalzo, R., Kobylecky, A., Campbell, V., Pinkelman, S., Chan, J. M., Sigafoos, J., (2015). A Review and Treatment Selection Model for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities Who Engage in Inappropriate Sexual Behavior. Behavior Analysis Practice. doi:10.1007/s40617-015-0062-3

      Dewinter, J., Vermeiren, R., Vanwesenbeeck, I., Lobbestael, J, & Van Nieuwenhuizen, C. (2014). Sexuality in adolescent boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-reported behaviors and attitudes.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45, 731-741.

      Ferrara, M. L., & McDonald, S. (1996). Treatment of the juvenile sex offender: Neurological and psychiatric impairments. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

      Hardoff, D & Millul, J. (1997) Education program on sexuality and disability for parents of physically handicapped adolescents. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 3, 173-180.

      Hellemans, H., Roeyers, H., Leplae, W., Dewaele, T., & Deboutte, D. (2010. Sexual behavior in male adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and borderline/mild mental retardatio. Sexuality and Disability, 28, 93-104.

      Hénault, I. (2006). Asperger’s syndrome and sexuality: From adolescence through adulthood. Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publisher.

      Holmes, L. G., Himle, M. B., Sewell, K. K., Carbone, P. S., Strassberg, D. S., & Murphy, N. A. (2013). Addresing sexuality in youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Current pediatric practices and barriers. Journal of Devlopmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 35, 172-178

      Holmes, L. G. & Himle, M. B. (2014). Brief report: Parent-child sexuality communication and Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 2964-2970.

      Koller, R. (2000). Sexuality and adolescents with Autism. Sexuality and Disability, 2, 125-135.

      Murphy, N. A., & Elias, E. R. (2006) Sexuality of children and adolescents with devlopmental disabilities. Pediatrics, 118, 398-403.

      Nichols, S. & Blakeley-Smith, A. (2014). "I'm nor sure we're ready for this...": Working with families toward facilitating healthy sexuality for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Social Work in mental Health, 8, 72-91.

      Oladunni, T. M. (2012). Sexual behavior and practices among adolescents with disabilities in southwest Nigeria. Sexuality and Dsiabilities, 30 289-299.

      Ray, F., Marks, C., & Bray-Garretson, H. (2004). Challenges to treating adolescents with Asperger’s syndrome who are sexually abusive. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 11, 265-285.

      Sevlever, M., Roth, M. E., & Gillis, J. M. (2013). Sexual Abuse and Offending in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Sexuality and Disabilities, 31, 189-200.

      Stokes, M. A & Kaur, A. (2005). High-functioning Autism and sexuality. Autism, 9, 266-289.

      Stokes, M., Newton, N., & Kaur, A. (2008). Stalking, and social and romantic functioning among adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Devlopmental Disorders, 37, 1969-1986.

      Sullivan, A. & Caterino, L. C. (2008). Addresing the sexuality and sex education of inidivudals with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Education and Treatment of Children, 31, 381-394.

      Tarnai, B. & Wolfe, P. S. (2008). Social stories for sexuality education for persons with Autism/Pervasive Devlppmental Disorder. Sexuality and Disabilities, 26, 29-36.

      Travers, J. & Tincani, M. (2010). Sexuality education for individuals with autism spectrum disorders: Critical issues and decision making guidelines. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 45, 284-293.

      Travers, J., Tincani, M, Whitby, P. S., Boutot, E. A. (2014). Alignment of sexuality education with self determination for people with significant disabilities: A review of research and future directions. Education and Training in Autism and Devlopmental Disabilities, 49, 232-247.

      Walters, J. B., Highes, T., L, Sutton, L. R., Marshall, S. N., Crothers, L. M., Lehman, C., ... & Huan, A. (2013). Maltreatment and depression in adolescent sexual offenders with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Chils Sexual Abuse, 22, 72-89.

    • Assessment

      American Educational Research Association (AERA), American Psychological Association (APA), National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME), (1999). The Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

      Becker, J. V., & Kaplan, M. S. (1988). The assessment of adolescent sexual offenders. In T. H. Ollendick & R. J. Prinz (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology, 19, 177-197.

      Chaffin, M. (2006, June 1). Triage decision making guidelines for adolescent sex offenders.

      Curwen, T., & Costin, D. (2007). Toward assessing risk for repeated concerning sexual behavior by children with sexual behavior problems: What we know and what we can do with this knowledge. In D. S Prescott (Ed.), Knowledge & practice: Challenges in the treatment and supervision of sexual abusers (pp. 310-344). Oklahoma City, OK: Woods and Barnes.

      Elkovitch, N., Viljoen, J. Scalora, M. J., & Ullman, D. (2008). Assessing risk of reoffending in adolescents who have committed a sexual offense: The accuracy of clinical judgments after completion of risk assessment instruments. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 26, 511–528. doi:10.1002/bsl.832

      Fanniff, A. M., & Becker, J. V. (2006). Specialized assessment and treatment of adolescent sex offenders. Aggression And Violent Behavior, 11(3), 265-282. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2005.08.003

      Fanniff, A. M., & Becker, J. V. (2013). Adolescents adjudicated for sexual offenses. In D. S. Bromberg, W. T. O'Donohue, (Eds.), Handbook of child and adolescent sexuality: Developmental and forensic psychology (pp. 519-546). San Diego, CA, US: Elsevier Academic Press. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-387759-8.00021-0

      Friedrich, W. N. (2002). Psychological assessment of sexually abused children and their families. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      Griffin, H. L., Beech, A., Print, B., Bradshaw, H., & Quayle, J.  (2008).  The development and initial testing of the AIM2 framework to assess risk and strengths in young people who sexually offend.  Journal of Sexual Aggression,  14, 211-225.

      Grisso, T., & Vincent, G.M. (2005). The empirical limits of forensic mental health assessment. Law and Human Behavior, 29(1), 1-3. doi:10.1007/s10979-005-1396-0

      Hanson, R. K., & Howard, P. D. (2010). Individual confidence intervals do not inform decision-makers about the accuracy of risk assessment evaluations. Law and Human Behavior, 34, 275-281. doi:10.1007/s10979-010-9227-3

      Hewitt, S.K. (1999). Assessing allegation of sexual abuse in preschool children: Understanding small voices. Interpersonal Violence: The Practice Series. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage

      Hunter, J. A., Goodwin, D. W., & Becker, J. V. (1994). The relationship between phallometrically measured deviant sexual arousal and clinical characteristics in juvenile sexual offenders. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 533–538.

      Kahn, T. J., & Chambers, H. J. (1991). Assessing reoffense risk with juvenile sexual offenders. Child Welfare, LXX, 333-345.

      Lussier, P. & Chouinard Thivierge, S. (in press). A developmental life course view of juvenile sexual offending: Key issues and assumptions. In S. Righthand, S. & W. Murphy (Eds.).The Safer Society Handbook of Assessment and Treatment with Adolescents who have Sexually Offended. Brandon, VT: Safer Society Press.

      Prentky, R. A., Righthand, S., Lamade, R. (2016). Sexual offending:  Assessment and intervention. In Kirk Heilbrun, Dave DeMatteo, & Naomi Goldstein (Eds.), Handbook of Psychology and Juvenile Justice. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

      Rasmussen, L. A. (1999). Factors related to recidivism among juvenile sexual offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 11, 69-85.

      Rice, M. E., Harris, G. T., Lang, C., Chaplin, T. C., (2012). Adolescents who have sexually offended: Is phallometry valid? Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 24, 133-152.

      Rich, P. (2009). Juvenile sexual offenders: A comprehensive guide to risk evaluations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

      Righthand, S., Vincent, G., & Huff, R. (in press).  Assessing risks and needs with adolescents who have sexually offended: Research-based guidelines. In: Sue Righthand & William Murphy (Eds.), The Safer Society Handbook of Assessment and Treatment with Adolescents who have Sexually Offended. Brandon, VT: Safer Society Press.

      Smith, W., & Monastersky, C. (1986). Assessing juvenile sex offenders’ risk for re-offending. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 13, 115-140.

      Vincent, G.M., Guy, L.S. & Grisso, T. (2012, November).  Risk Assessment in Juvenile Justice: A Guidebook for Implementation. Models for Change: System Reform in Juvenile Justice:  John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.  http://www.modelsforchange.net/publications/346

      Worling, J. R., & Langstrom, N. (2006). Risk of sexual recidivism in adolescents who offend sexually: Correlates and assessment. In H. E. Barbaree & W. L. Marshall (Eds.), The juvenile sex offender (2nd ed., pp. 219-247). New York: Guilford.

    • Assessment Measures

      Abidin, R.R. (1995). Parenting Stress Index. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

      Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 and 1991 Profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry.

      Briere, J., Johnson, K., Bissada, A., Damon, L., et al. (2001). The Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children (TSCYC): reliability and association with abuse Exposure in a multi-site study. Child Abuse and Neglect, 25, 1001-1014.

      Briere, J. (1996). Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children: Professional Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.

      Epperson, D. L., Ralston, C. A., Fowers, D., & Dewitt, J. (2006). Development of the Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool-II (JSORRAT-II). In: D. S Prescott (Ed.), Knowledge & practice: Challenges in the treatment and supervision of sexual abusers (pp. 310-344). Oklahoma City, OK: Woods and Barnes.

      Fischer, L. & Smith G.M. (1999). Statistical adequacy of the Abel Assessment for Internet in Paraphilias. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 11(3), 195-206.

      Forth, A., Kosson, D., & Hare, R. (2003). Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.

      Friedrich, W. N. (1997). Child Sexual Behavior Inventory: Professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

      Friedrich, W. N., Fisher, J. L., Dittner, C., Acton, R., Berliner, L., Butler, J., et al. (2001). Child Sexual Behavior Inventory: Normative, psychiatric, and sexual abuse comparisons. Child Maltreatment, 6, 37-49.

      Friedrich, W.N., Grambsch, P., Damon, L., Hewitt, S.K., Koverola, C., Lang, R.A., Wolfe, V., & Broughton, D. (1992). Child sexual behavior inventory: Normative and clinical comparisons. Psychological Assessment, 4, 303-311.

      Friedrich, W.N., Lysne, M., Sim, L., & Shamos, S. (2004). Assessing Sexual Behavior in High-Risk Adolescents with the Adolescent Clinical Sexual Behavior Inventory (ACSBI). Child Maltreatment, 9(3), 239-250. doi:10.1177/1077559504266907

      Hecker, J., Scoular, J., Righthand, S., & Nangle, D. (2002, Oct.). Predictive validity of the J- SOAP over 10-plus years: Implications for risk assessment. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Treatment of Sexual Abusers, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

      Letourneau, E. J. (2002). A comparison of objective measures of sexual arousal and interest: Visual reaction time and penile plethysmography. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 14, 207–223. doi:10.1177/107906320201400302

      Martinez, R., Flores, J. & Rosenfeld, B. (2007). Validity of the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol II (J-SOAP-II) in a sample of urban minority youth. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34(10), 1284-1295. doi:10.1177/0093854807301791

      Neumann, C. S., Kosson, D. S., Forth, A. E., & Hare, R. D. (2006). Factor structure of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version in incarcerated adolescents. Psychological Assessment, 18(2), 142-154. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.18.2.142

      Oneal, B. J., Burns, G. L., Kahn, T. J., Rich, P., & Worling, J.R. (2008). Initial psychometric properties of a treatment planning and progress Inventory for adolescents who sexually abuse. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 20(2), 161-187. doi:10.1177/1079063208317465

      Prentky, R., Harris, B., Frizzell, K., & Righthand, S. (2000). An actuarial procedure for assessing risk in juvenile sexual offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 12, 71–93. doi:10.1177/107906320001200201

      Prentky, R., Pimental, A., Cavanaugh, D. J. & Righthand, S. (2009). Predicting risk of sexual recidivism in juveniles: Predictive validity of the J-SOAP-II. In: Anthony R. Beech, Craig, L. A., & Kevin D. Browne, (eds.). Assessment and treatment of sex offenders: A handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

      Prentky, R. A., & Righthand, S. (2003). Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol–II Manual. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

      Reynolds, C. & Kamphaus, R. (1992). Behavior Assessment System for Children Manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

      Righthand, S., Knight, R., & Prentky, R. A. (2002, October). A path analytic investigation of proximal antecedents of J-SOAP risk domains. Paper presented at the 21th Annual Meeting of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers, Montreal, Canada.

      Righthand, S., Prentky, R., Knight, R., Carpenter, E., Hecker, J. E., & Nangle, D. (2005). Factor structure and validation of the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol (J–SOAP). Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 17, 13–30. doi:10.1177/107906320501700103

      Righthand, S., Prentky, R. A., Scoular, R. J., & Teleha, M. (2004). Exploring the predictive validity of the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol (J-SOAP). Poster session at the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers' 23rd Annual Research and Treatment Conference in Albuquerque, N.M.

      Viljoen, J.L., Scalora, M., Cuadra, L., Bader, S., Chavez, V., Ullman, D., Lawrence, L. (2008). Assessing risk of violence in adolescents who have sexually offended: A comparison of the J-SOAP-II, J-SORRAT-II, and SAVRY. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(1), 5-23. doi:10.1177/0093854807307521

      Wherry, J. N., Berres, Ashley K., Sim, L., & Friedrich, W. N. (2009). Factor structure of the Adolescent Clinical Sexual Behavior Inventory. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 18, 233-246. doi:10.1080/10538710902881428

      Worling, J. R., Bookalam, D. & Litteljohn, A., (2012). Prospective validity of the Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offense Recidivism (ERASOR). Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment. doi:10.1177/1079063211407080

      Worling, J. R., & Curwen, T. (2001). The “ERASOR:” Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Recidivism (Version 2.0). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Safe-T Program, Thistletown Regional Centre.

    • Domains of Assessment

      Abel, G. G., Jordan, A., Rouleau, J. L., Emerick, R., Barboza-Whitehead, S., & Osborn, C. (2004). Use of visual reaction time to assess male adolescents who molest children. Sexual Abuse: Journal of Research and Treatment, 16, 255-265.

      American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, National Council on Measurement in Education, (1999). The standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.

      Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (2010). The psychology of criminal conduct (5th ed.). New Providence, NJ: LexisNexis.

      Bourke, M. L., & Donohue, B. (1996). Assessment and treatment of juvenile sex offenders: An empirical review. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 5(1), 47-70.

      Caldwell, M. F. (2009). Study characteristics and recidivism base rates in juvenile sex offender recidivism. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 54, 197-212. doi:10.1177/0306624X08330016

      Caldwell, M. F., Ziemke, M. H., Vitacco, M. J. (2008). An examination of the sex offender registration and notification act as applied to juveniles: Evaluating the ability to predict sexual recidivism. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 14, 89–114. doi:10.1037/a0013241

      Chaffin, M. (2008). Our minds are made up—don’t confuse us with the facts: Commentary on policies concerning children with sexual behavior problems and juvenile sex offenders. Child Maltreatment, 13(2), 110-121. doi:10.1177/1077559508314510

      Chaffin, M. (2011). The case of juvenile polygraphy as a clinical ethics dilemma. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 23, 314-328. doi:10.1177/1079063210382046

      Clift, R. J. W., Rajlic, G., & Gretton, H. M., (2009). Discriminative and predictive validity of the penile plethysmograph in adolescent sex offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 21(3), 335-362. doi:10.1177/1079063209338491

      Cross, T. P., & Saxe, L. (2001). Polygraph testing and sexual abuse: The lure of the magic lasso. Child Maltreatment, 6, 195–206. doi:10.1177/1077559501006003001

      Fanniff, A. M., & Becker, J. V. (2006). Specialized assessment and treatment of adolescent sex offenders. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 11, 265–282. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2005.08.003

      Hanson, R. K., Bourgon G., Helmus L., & Hodgson S. (2009). The principles of effective correctional treatment also apply to sexual offenders: A meta-analysis. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 36, 865 - 891. doi:10.1177/0093854809338545

      Hanson, R. K., & Morton-Bourgon, K. (2005). The characteristics of persistent sexual offenders: A meta-analysis of recidivism studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 1154-1163. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.73.6.1154

      Hawkins, J. D., Herrenkohl, T. I., Farrington, D. P., Brewer, D., Catalano R. F.; Harachi, T. W., & Cothern, L. (1998). A review of predictors of youth violence. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Serious & violent juvenile offender: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 106-146). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

      Jones, C. D., Chancey, R., Lowe, L. A., Risler, E. A. (2010). Residential treatment for sexually abusive youth: An assessment of treatment outcomes. Research on Social Work Practice, 20(2), 172-182. doi: 10.1177/1049731509333349

      Lipsey, M. W. (1995). What do we learn from 400 research studies on the effectiveness of treatment with juvenile delinquents? In J. McGuire (Ed.). What works? Reducing reoffending, (pp. 63-78). New York, NY: John Wiley.

      Lipsey, M. W. (1999). Can intervention rehabilitate serious delinquents? The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 564, 142-166.

      Lipsey, M. W. (2009). The primary factors that characterize effective interventions with juvenile offenders: A meta-analytical overview. Victims & Offenders, 4, 124-147. doi:10.1080/15564880802612573

      Lipsey, M. W., & Derzon, J. H. (1998). Predictors of violence and serious delinquency in adolescence and serious adulthood: A synthesis of longitudinal research. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Serious & violent juvenile offender: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 86-105). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

      Luthar, S.S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71, 543–562.

      Marlowe, D. B., Festinger, D. S., Lee, P. A., Dugosh, K. L., & Benasutti, K. M. (2006). Matching judicial supervision to clients’ risk status in drug court. Crime & Delinquency, 52, 52-76. doi:10.1177/0011128705281746

      Martinez, R., Flores, J., & Rosenfeld, B. (2007). Validity of the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol II (J-SOAP-II) in a sample of urban minority youth. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34, 1284-1295. doi:10.1177/0093854807301791

      McGrath, R. J., Cumming, G. F., & Burchard, B. L., Zeoli, S., & Ellerby, L. (2010). Current practices and trends in sexual abuser management: The Safer Society 2009 nationwide survey. Brandon, VT: Safer Society.

      McGrath, R. J., Cumming, G. F., Hoke, S. E., & Bonn-Miller, M. O. (2007). Outcomes in a community sex offender treatment program: a comparison between polygraphed and matched non-polygraphed offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 19, 381-393. doi:10.1007/s11194-007-9058-z

      Meijer, E. H., Verschuere, B., Merckelback, H. L. &. Crombez, G. (2008). Sex offender management using the polygraph: A critical review. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 31, 423-9. doi:10.1016/j.ijlp.2008.08.007

      National Research Council (2003). The polygraph and lie detection. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.

      Parks, G. A. & Bard, D. E. (2006). Risk factors for adolescent sex offender recidivism: Evaluation of predictive factors and comparison of three groups based upon victim type. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 18, 319-342. doi:10.1177/107906320601800402

      Pealer, J. A., & Latessa, E. (2004). Applying the principles of effective intervention to juvenile correctional programs. Corrections Today, 26-29.

      The polygraph and lie detection. (2003). Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press. Retrieved from http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309084369

      Powers-Sawyer, A., & Miner, M. (2009). Actuarial prediction of juvenile recidivism: the static variables of the Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol-II (J-SOAP-II). Sexual Offender Treatment, 4(2), 1-11.

      Prentky, R. A., & Righthand, S. (2003). Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol–II Manual. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

      Prentky, R., Li, N., Righthand, S., Schuler, A., Cavanaugh, D. J., Lee, A. (2010). Assessing Risk of Sexually Abusive Behavior Among Youth in a Child Welfare Sample. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 28,, 24-45.

      Rajlic, G., & Gretton, H. M. (2010). An examination of two sexual recidivism risk measures in adolescent offenders: The moderating effect of offender type. Criminal Justice & Behavior, 37, 1066-1085. doi:10.1177/0093854810376354

      Rich, P. (2009). Juvenile sexual offenders: A comprehensive guide to risk evaluations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

      Righthand, S. & Welch, C. (2001). Youths who have sexually offended. A review of the professional literature. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

      Righthand, S. & Welch, C. (2004). Characteristics of youth who sexually offend. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 13, 15-32.

      Righthand, S., Vincent, G., & Huff, R. (in press).  Assessing risks and needs with adolescents who have sexually offended: Research-based guidelines. In: Sue Righthand & William Murphy (Eds.), The Safer Society Handbook of Assessment and Treatment with Adolescents who have Sexually Offended. Brandon, VT: Safer Society Press.

      Schram, D. D., Milloy, C. D., & Rowe, W. E. (1991). Juvenile sex offenders: A follow up study of reoffense behavior. Olympia, WA: Washington State Institute for Public Policy, Urban Policy Research and Cambie Group International.

      Vitacco M. J., Caldwell, M., Ryba, N. L., & Malesky, A (2009). Assessing risk in adolescent sexual offenders: Recommendations for clinical practice. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 27, 929–940. doi:10.1002/bsl.909

      Worling, J. R. (2006). Assessing sexual arousal with adolescent males who have offended sexually: Self-report and unobtrusively measured viewing time. Sex Abuse, 18, 383-400. doi:10.1177/107906320601800406

      Worling, J. R., & Curwen, T. (2001). The “ERASOR:” Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Recidivism (Version 2.0). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Safe-T Program, Thistletown Regional Centre.

      Worling, J. R., & Langstrom, N. (2006). Risk of sexual recidivism in adolescents who offend sexually: Correlates and assessment. In H. E. Barbaree & W. L. Marshall (Eds.), The juvenile sex offender (2nd ed., pp. 219-247). New York: Guilford.

    • Clinical Decision Making

      Andrews, D.A., & Bonta, J. (2010). Rehabilitating criminal justice policy and practice. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 16(1), 39–55.

      Chaffin, M. (October, 2002) Triage guidelines for adolescent sex offenders and children with sexual behavior problems. All-day institute presented at Midwest Conference on Child Sexual Abuse, Madison, WI

      Righthand, S., Baird, B., Way, I & Seto, M. (in press). Effective Intervention with Adolescents Who Have Offended Sexually:Translating Research into Practice. Brandon Vermont: Safer Society Press.

    • Intervention

      Becker, J. V. (1990). Treating adolescent sexual offenders. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 21, 362-365. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.21.5.362

      Beech, A. R. & Hamilton-Giachritsis, C. E. (2005). Relationship between therapeutic climate and treatment outcome in group-based sexual offender treatment programs. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 17, 127-140. doi:10.1177/107906320501700204

      Borduin, C. M., Henggeler, S. W., Blaske, D. M., & Stein, R. J. (1990). Multisystemic treatment of adolescent sex offenders. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 34, 105-113.

      Borduin, C. M., & Schaeffer, C. M. (2002). Multisystemic treatment of juvenile sexual offenders: A progress report. Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 13, 25-42.

      Borduin C. M; Schaeffer, C. M; Heiblum, N. (2009). A randomized clinical trial of multisystemic therapy with juvenile sexual offenders: effects on youth social ecology and criminal activity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(1):26-37.

      Bradford, J. W., & Fedoroff, P. (2006). Pharmacological treatment of the juvenile sex offender. In H. E. Barbaree & W. L. Marshall (Eds.), The juvenile sex offender (2nd ed., pp. 358–382). New York: Guilford.

      Bremer, J. (2006). Protective factors scale: Determining the level of intervention for youth with harmful sexual behavior. In D. S. Prescott (Ed.), Risk assessment of youth who have sexually abused (pp. 195-221). Brandon, VT: Safer Society Press.

      Bumby, K. (2006). Understanding Treatment for Adults and Juveniles Who Have Committed Sex Offenses. Silver Spring, MD: Center for Sex Offender Management.

      Bumby, K. M., & Talbot, T. B. (2006). Treating juveniles who commit sex offenses: Historical approaches, contemporary practices, and future directions. In M. Calder (Ed.) Working with children and young people who sexually abuse: Taking the field forward. Lyme Regis, UK: Russell House.

      Burton, D.L., Nesmith, A.A., & Badten, L. (1997). Clinician’s views on sexually aggressive children and their families: A theoretical exploration. Child Abuse & Neglect, 21(2), 157- 170.

      Burton, D. L. & Smith-Darden, J. (2001). North American survey of sexual abuser treatment and models: Summary data 2000. Brandon, VT: Safer Society Press

      Caldwell, M. (2011). Treatment – related changes in behavioral outcomes of psychopathy facets in adolescent offenders. Law and Human Behavior, 35, 275-287.

      Caldwell, M. (2013) Treatment of adolescents with psychopathic features. In Kehl, K., & Armstrong, W. (Eds.), Handbook of Psychopathy and the Law, Oxford University Press: New York.

      Caldwell, M., Mc Cormick, D, & Umstead, D. (2007). Evidence of treatment progress and therapeutic outcomes among adolescents with psychopathic features. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34, 573 – 587.

      Caldwell, M., McCormick, D., Wolfe, J. (2012). Treatment – related changes in psychopathy features. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 39, 144-155.

      Caldwell, M., Skeem, J., Salekin, R., & Van Rybroek, G. (2006). Treatment response of adolescent offenders with psychopathy features: A 2-year follow-up. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 33, 571-596.

      Caldwell, M. F. & Van Rybroek, G. (2005) Reducing violence in serious and violent juvenile offenders using an intensive treatment program. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 28, 622 – 636.

      Caldwell, M.F., Vitacco, M., & Van Rybroek, G. (2006) Are violent delinquents worth treating?  A cost – effectiveness study. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 43, 148 - 168.

      Carpentier, M., Silovsky, J. F., & Chaffin, M. (2006). Randomized trial of treatment for children with sexual behavior problems: Ten-year follow-up. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 482-488.

      Carpentier, M., Silovsky, J.F., & Chaffin, M. (2006). 10 year follow-up supports cognitive- behavioral treatment for children with sexual behavior problems: Implications for services, treatment implementation, and future directions. ATSA Forum, 1-21.

      Chaffin, M. (2006). Can we develop evidence-based practice with adolescent sex offenders? In R. E. Longo & D. S. Prescott (Eds.), Current perspectives: Working with sexually aggressive youth and youth with sexual behavior problems (pp. 661-681). Holyoke, MA: NEARI Press.

      Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. B. (1998). Comparison of two community alternatives to incarceration for chronic juvenile offenders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(4), 624-633.

      Cohen, J. A. & Mannarino, A. P. (2008). Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for children and parents. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 13, 158-162. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-3588.2008.00502.x

      Cohen, J. A., & Mannarino, A. P. (1997). A treatment study for sexually abused preschool children: Outcome during a one-year follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1228-1235.

      Cunningham, C. & MacFarlane, K. (1991). When children molest children: Group treatment strategies for young sexual abusers. Orwell, VT: Safer Society Press.

      Cunningham, C., & MacFarlane, K. (1996). When children abuse: Group treatment strategies for children with impulse control problems. Brandon, VT: Safer Society Press.

      Dishion, T. J., & Dodge, K. A. (2005). Peer contagion in interventions for children and adolescents: Moving towards an understanding of the ecology and dynamics of change. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 395-400. doi:10.1007/s10802-005-3579-z

      Dishion, T. J., McCord, J., & Poulin, F. (1999). When interventions harm: Peer groups and problem behavior. American Psychologist, 54, 755-764.

      Dodge, K. A.Dishion, T. J, Lansford, J. E. (Eds.). (2006). Deviant peer influences in programs for youth: Problems and solutions. New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.

      Dopp, A. R., Borduin, C. M., Brown, C. E. (2015). Evidence-based treatments for juvenile sexual offenders: Review and recommendations. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 7, 223-236. 

      Drake, E. (2007). Evidence-based juvenile offender programs: Program description, quality assurance, and cost. Olympia, WA: Washington State Institute for Public Policy.

      Fago, D. P. (2003). Evaluation and treatment of neurodevelopmental deficits in sexually aggressive children and adolescents. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 34(3), 248-257

      Fanniff, A. M., & Becker, J. V. (2006). Specialized assessment and treatment of adolescent sex offenders. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 11, 265–282. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2005.08.003

      Fernandez, Y. M. (2006). Focusing on the positive and avoiding negativity in sexual offender treatment. In W. L., Marshall, Y. M. Fernandez, L. E. Marshall, & G. A. Serran (Eds.), Sexual offender treatment: Controversial issues (pp. 187-197). West Sussex, England: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

      Fernandez, Y. M., Mann, R, & Marshall, L. E. (October, 2002). Working with Resistant Clients in Sexual Offender Therapy. Pre-conference workshop presented at the 21st Annual Treatment and Research Conference of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers, Montreal, Canada.

      Friedrich, W. N. (1995). Psychotherapy with sexually abused boys: An integrated approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      Friedrich, W. N. (2007). Children with sexual behavior problems: Family-based, attachment-focused therapy. New York: Norton.

      Friedrich, W. N., Luecke, W. M., Beilke, R. L., & Place, V. (1992). Psychotherapy outcome of sexually abused boys. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 396-409.

      Gambrill, E., & Littell, J. H. (2010). Do haphazard reviews provide sound directions for dissemination efforts? American Psychologist, 65, 927.

      Gendreau, P., & Goggin, C. (1997). Correctional treatment: Accomplishments & realities:. In Van Voorhis, P., Braswell, M., & Lester, D. (Eds.), Correctional counseling and rehabilitation, pp. 271-280, Cincinnati: Anderson.

      Gray, A. S., & Pithers, W. D. (1993). Relapse prevention with sexually aggressive adolescents and children: Expanding treatment and supervision. In H. Barbaree, W. Marshall, & S. Hudson (Eds.), The juvenile sexual offender (pp. 280-319). New York: Guilford Press.

      Hagan, M., & Cho, M. (1996). A comparison of treatment outcomes between adolescent rapists and child sexual offenders. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 40, 113-122.

      Hair, H. J. (2005). Outcomes for children and adolescents after residential treatment: A review of research from 1993 to 2003, Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14(4), 551-575.

      Hall-Marley, S. E., & Damon, L. (1993). Impact of structured group therapy on young victims of sexual abuse. Journal of Child and Adolescent Group Therapy, 3, 41­-48

      Handwerk, M. L., Clopton, K., Huefner, J.C., Smith, G.L., Hoff, K.E., & Lucas, C. P. (2006). Gender differences in adolescents in residential treatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76(3), 312-324. doi:10.1037/0002-9432.76.3.312

      Hanson, R. K., Bourgon G., Helmus L., & Hodgson S. (2009). The Principles of Effective Correctional Treatment Also Apply To Sexual Offenders: A Meta-Analysis. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 36(9): 865-891. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.73.6.1154

      Harpell, J. V., & Andrews, J. (2006). A current review of Multisystemic Therapy: A social-ecological approach to the treatment of conduct problems among adolescents. Developmental Disabilities Bulletin, 34, 80-106.

      Heilbrun, K., Lee, R. J., Cottle, C. C (2005). Risk factors and intervention outcomes: Meta-analyses of juvenile offending. In K. Heilbrun, N. E. S. Goldstein, & R. E. Redding, Juvenile delinquency: Prevention, assessment, & intervention (pp. 111-133). New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. 

      Henggeler S. W., Letourneau, E. J., Chapman, J. E., Borduin, C. M., Schewe, P.A., & McCart, M. R. (2009). Mediators of change for multisystemic therapy with juvenile sexual offenders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(3), 451-62. doi:10.1037/a0013971

      Henggeler, S. W., Melton, G. B., Brondino, M. J., Scherer, D. G., & Hanley, J. H. (1997). Multisystemic therapy with violent and chronic juvenile offenders and their families: The role of treatment fidelity in successful dissemination. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 821–833. doi:10/1037/0022-006X.65.5.821

      Henggeler, S. W., Schoenwald, S. K., Borduin, C. M., Rowland, M. D., & Cunningham, P. B. (1998). Multisystemic treatment of antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. New York: Guilford.

      Horton, C.B. (1996). Children who molest other children: The school psychologist’s response to the sexually aggressive child. School Psychology Review, 25, 540-557.

      Hunter, J., & Longo, R. E. (2004). Relapse prevention with juvenile sexual abusers: A holistic and integrated approach. In G. O’Reilly, W. L.Marshall, A. Carr, & R. C. Beckett (Eds.), The handbook of clinical intervention with young people who sexually abuse (pp. 297-314). New York: Brunner-Routledge.

      Jenkins, A. (1998). Invitations to responsibility: Engaging adolescents and young men who have sexually abused. In W. L. Marshall, Y. M. Fernandez, S. M. Hudson, & T. Ward (Eds.), Sourcebook of treatment programs for sexual offenders (pp. 163-189). New York: Plenum.

      Jenkins, A. (2006). Discovering integrity: Working with shame without shaming young people who have abused. In R. E. Longo & D. S. Prescott (Eds.), Current perspectives: Working with sexually aggressive youth and youth with sexual behavior problems (pp. 419-442). Holyoke, MA: NEARI Press.

      Johnson, T.C. (1995). Treatment exercises for child abuse victims and children with sexual behavior problems. Pasadena, CA: Toni Johnson.

      Johnson, T.C., & Berry, C. (1989). Children who molest: A treatment program. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 4, 185-203.

      Kazdin, A. E., & Weisz, J. R. (1998). Identifying and developing empirically supported child and adolescent treatments. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 19–36. doi:10.1037/0022-066X.66.1.19

      Kools, S. & Kennedy, C. (2002). Child sexual abuse treatment: Misinterpretation and mismanagement of child sexual behavior. Child: Care, Health & Development, 28(3), 211-218.

      Lab, S., Shields, G., & Schondel, C. (1993). Research note: An evaluation of juvenile sexual offender treatment. Crime & Delinquency, 39, 543-553.

      Laws, D. R., Hudson, S.M., & Ward, T. (Eds) (2000). Remaking relapse prevention with sex offenders: A sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      Lawson, L. (2003). Becoming a success story: How boys who have molested children talk about treatment. Journal of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, 10(3), 259­-268.

      Leichtman, M. (2006). Residential treatment of children and adolescents: Past, present, future. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 73(3), 285-194. doi:10.1037/0002-9432.76.3.285

      Letourneau, E. J. (2008). Multisystemic therapy: Treatment for adolescents with delinquent sexual behavior. American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. Special issue on Adolescent Illegal Sexual Behavior (AISB), 20, 14-17.

      Letourneau, E. J., Henggeler, S. W., Borduin, C. M., Schewe, P. A., McCart, M. R., Chapman, J. E., & Saldana, L. (2009). Multisystemic therapy for juvenile sexual offenders: 1-year results from a randomized effectiveness trial. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, 89-102.

      Letourneau, E. J., & Borduin, C. M. (2008). The effective treatment of juveniles who sexually offend: An ethical imperative. Ethics and Behavior, 18, 286-306. doi:10.1080/10508420802066940

      Letourneau, E. J., Chapman, J. E., & Schoenwald, S. K. (2008). Treatment outcome and criminal offending by youth with sexual behavior problems, Child Maltreatment, 13, 133-144. doi: 10.1177/107755950730671

      Letourneau, E. J., Henggeler, S. W., McCart, M. R, Borduin, C. M., Schewe, P. A., & Armstrong, K. S. (2013). Two-year follow-up of a randomized effectiveness trial evaluating MST for juveniles who sexually offend. Journal of Family Psychology, 27, 978-985. 

      Littell, J. H. (2006). The case for Multisystemic Therapy: Evidence or orthodoxy? Children and Youth Services Review, 28, 458–472. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2005.07.002

      Littell, J. H. (2008). Evidence-based or biased? The quality of published reviews of evidence-based practices. Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 1299–1317.

      Littell, J. H., Popa, M., & Forsythe, B. (2005).Multisystemic Therapy for social, emotional, and behavioral problems in youth aged 10–17 (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 4, Art. No.CD004797. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004797.

      Loar, L. (1994). Child sexual abuse: Several brief interventions with young perpetrators. Child Abuse and Neglect, 11, 977-986.

      Lösel, F. & Schmucker, M. (2005). The effectiveness of treatment for sexual offenders: A comprehensive meta-analysis. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1, 117-146. doi:10.1007/s11292-004-6466-7

      Mann, R. E., Webster, S. D., Schofield, C., & Marshall, W. L. (2004). Approach versus avoidance goals in relapse prevention with sexual offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 16, 65-75. doi:10.1023/B:SEBU.0000006285.73534.57

      Marques, J. K., Wiederanders, M., Day, D. M., Nelson, C., & van Ommeren, A. (2005). Effects of a relapse prevention program on sexual recidivism: Final results from California’s Sex Offender Treatment and Evaluation Project (SOTEP). Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 17, 79-107. doi:10.1177/107906320501700108

      Marshall, W. L. (2005). Therapist style in sexual offender treatment: Influence on indices of change. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 17, 109-116. Milloy, C. D. (June, 1994). A comparative study of juvenile sex offenders and non-sex offenders. Washington State Institute for Public Policy. doi:10.1177/107906320501700202

      Marshall, W. L., & Fernandez, Y. M. (2004). Treatment outcome with juvenile sexual offenders. In G. O’Reilly, W. L. Marshall, A. Carr, & R. C. Beckett (Eds.), The handbook of clinical intervention with young people who sexually abuse (pp. 442-452). New York: Brunner-Routledge.

      Marshall, L. E., Marshall, W. L., Fernandez, Y. M., Malcolm, P.B., Moulden, H., & (2008). The Rockwood Prepartory Program for sexual offenders: Description and preliminary appraisal, Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 20(1), 25-4.

      Marshall, W. L., Ward, T., Mann, R., Moulden, H., Fernandez, Y. M., Serran, G., & Marshall, L. E. (2005). Working positively with sexual offenders: Maximizing the effectiveness of treatment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20, 1096-1114.

      McGrath, R. J., Cumming, G. F., Hoke, S.E. & Bonn-Miller, M. O. (2007). Outcomes in a community sex offender treatment program: a comparison between polygraphed and matched non-polygraphed offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 19(4), 381-393. doi:10.1007/s11194-007-9058-z

      McHugh, R. K., & Barlow, D. H. (2010). The dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments. American Psychologist, 65, 73–84. doi:10.1037/a0018121

      McPhatter, A.R., & Ganaway, T.L. (2003). Beyond rhetoric: Strategies for implementing culturally effective practice with children, families, and communities. Child Welfare, 82(2), 103-124.

      Miner, M. H., Siekert, G. P., & Ackland, M., A. (1997). Evaluation: Juvenile sex offender treatment program, Minnesota Correctional Facility – Sauk Centre (Final report – Biennium 1995-1997). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, Department of Family Practice and Community Health, Program in Human Sexuality.

      Miranda, A. O., Biegler, B.N., Davis, K., Frevert, V.S., & Taylor, J. (2001). Treating sexually aggressive children. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 33, 15-32.

      Murphy, W. D., & Page, I. J. (2000). Relapse prevention with adolescent sex offenders. In D. R, Laws, S. M. Hudson, & T. Ward (Eds.), Remaking relapse prevention with sex offenders: A sourcebook (pp. 353-368). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      Murphy, W. D., & Page, I. J. (2007). Manual for structured group treatment with adolescent sex offenders, Revised edition. Brandon Vermont: Safer Society Foundation.

      Nunes, K. L., Hanson, R. K., Firestone, P., Moulden, H. M., Greenberg, D. M., & Bradford, J. M., (2007). Denial Predicts Recidivism for Some Sexual Offenders, Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 19(2), 91-105.

      Page, J., & Murphy, W. D., (2007). Manual for structured group treatment with adolescent sex offenders. Revised ed., Safer Society Press.

      Prentky, R. A. (2006). Risk management of sexually abusive youth: A follow-up study. National Institute of Justice, Grant Number 2002-IJ-CX-0029. Final technical report available at www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/214261.pdf.

      Prentky, R. A. (1997). Arousal reduction in sexual offenders: A review of antiandrogen interventions. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 9, 335–347.

      Prentky, R. A., Righthand, S., Lamade, R. (2016). Sexual offending:  Assessment and intervention. In Kirk Heilbrun, Dave DeMatteo, & Naomi Goldstein (Eds.), Handbook of Psychology and Juvenile Justice. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

      Price, D. (2004). Youth with problem sexual behaviors: Integrating diverse models of treatment. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity, 11, 183-186.

      Reitzel, L. R., & Carbonell, J. L. (2006). The effectiveness of sex offender treatment for juveniles as measured by recidivism: A meta-analysis. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 18, 401-421. doi:10.1177/107906320601800407

      Righthand, S., Baird, B., Way,I & Seto, M. (2014). Effective Intervention with Adolescents Who Have Offended Sexually: Translating Research into Practice. Brandon Vermont: Safer Society Press

      Righthand, S., Baird, B., Way, I & Seto, M. (in press). Effective Intervention with Adolescents Who Have Offended Sexually: Translating Research into Practice. Brandon Vermont: Safer Society Press.

      Rosenblatt, A., Deuel, L., Mak, W., Thornton, P., Baize, H., Morea, J., & Smucker, S. (2001). Evaluation of two therapeutic programs for children with serious mental health problems and their families: Home-based multisystemic therapy (MST) and the MST continuum of care. San Francisco: University of California, San Francisco, Child Services Research Group.

      Saldana, L., Swenson, C. C., & Letourneau, E. (2006). Multisystemic therapy with juveniles who sexually abuse. In R. E. Longo & D. S. Prescott (Eds.), Current perspectives: Working with sexually aggressive youth and youth with sexual behavior problems (pp. 563-577). Holyoke, MA: NEARI Press.

      Santa Ana, E. J., et al. (2008). What is usual about “treatment-as-usual”? Data from two multisite effectiveness trials. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 35, 369–379. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2008.01.003

      Seto, M. C. (2008). Pedophilia and sexual offending against children: Theory, assessment and intervention. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

      Silovsky, J. F., Niec, L., Bard, D., & Hecht, D. (2007). Treatment for preschool children with interpersonal sexual behavior problems: A pilot study. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36, 378-391.

      Skeem, J.L. (2006, June). Is psychopathy treatable? Propensity score analyses of three quasi-experimental studies. Irvine California: University of California.

      St. Amand, A., Bard, D. E., & Silovsky, J. F. (2008). Meta-analysis of treatment for child sexual behavior problems: practice elements and outcomes. Child Maltreatment, 13, 145-166. doi:10.1177/1077559508315353

      Swenson, C. C., Henggeler, S. W., Schoenwald, S. K., Kaufman, K. L., & Randall, J., 1998). Changing the social ecologies of adolescent sexual offenders: Implications of the success of multisystemic therapy in treating serious antisocial behavior in adolescents. Child Maltreatment, 3(4), 330-338. doi:10.1177/1077559598003004005

      Thakker, J., Ward, T., & Tidmarsh, P. (2006). A reevaluation of relapse prevention with adolescents who sexually offend: A good lives model. In H. E. Barbaree & W. L. Marshall (Eds.), The juvenile sex offender (2nd ed., pp. 313-335). New York: Guilford.

      Thomas, J. (2004). Family intervention with young people with sexually abusive behavior. In G. O’Reilly, W. L. Marshall, A. Carr, & R. C. Beckett (Eds.), The handbook of clinical intervention with young people who sexually abuse (pp. 315-342). New York: Brunner-Routledge.

      Thorpe, G. L., Righthand, S., & Kubik, E. K. (2001). Brief report: Dimensions of burnout in professionals working with sex offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 13, 197-203.

      United States General Accounting Office (1996). Sex offender treatment: Research results inconclusive about what works to reduce recidivism. Washington, D.C.: United States General Accounting Office.

      Walker, D. F., McGovern, S. K., Poey, E. L., Otis, K. E. (2004). Treatment effectiveness for male adolescent sexual offenders: A meta-analysis and review. In R. Geffner, K. Crumpton Franey, T. Geffner Arnold, & R. Falconer (Eds). Identifying and treating youth who sexually offend: Current approaches, techniques, and research (pp. 281-293). Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press.

      Ward, T., & Hudson, S. M. (2000). A self-regulation model of relapse prevention. In D. R. Laws, S. M. Hudson, & T. Ward (Eds.), Remaking relapse prevention with sex offenders: A sourcebook (pp. 79-101). New York: Sage.

      Ward, T., Hudson, S. M., & Keenan, T. (1998). A self-regulation model of the sexual offense process. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 10, 141-157.

      Ward, T., & Stewart, C. A. (2003). Good lives and the rehabilitation of sexual offenders. In T.Ward, D. R. Laws, & S. M. Hudson (Eds.), Sexual deviance: Issues and controversies (pp. 21-44). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      Way, I., VanDeusen, K.M., Martin, G., Applegate, B., & Jandle, D. (2004). Vicarious trauma: A comparison of clinicians who treat survivors of sexual abuse and sexual offenders. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19, 49-71. doi:10.1177/0886260503259050

      Weinrott, M., Riggan, M., & Frothingham, S. (1997). Reducing deviant arousal in juvenile sex offenders using vicarious sensitization. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 12(5), 704-728.

      Weiss, B., Caron, A., Ball, S., Tapp, J., Johnson, M., & Weisz, J.R. (2005). Iatrogenic effects of group treatment for antisocial youth. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 1036-1044. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.73.6.1036

      Worling, J. R. (2004). Essentials of a good intervention programme for sexually abusive juveniles: Offense related treatment tasks. In G. O’Reilly, W. L. Marshall, A. Carr, & R. C. Beckett (Eds.), The handbook of clinical intervention with young people who sexually abuse (pp. 275-296). New York: Brunner-Routledge.

      Worling, J. R., & Curwen, T. (2000). Adolescent sexual offender recidivism: Success of specialized treatment and implications for risk prediction. Child Abuse and Neglect, 24, 965-982. doi:10.1016/S0145-2134(00)00147-2

      Yates, P. M. (2009). Is sexual offender denial related to sex offence risk and recidivism? A review and treatment implications Psychology, Crime & Law, 15 (2 & 3), 183-199. doi:10.1080/10683160802190905

    • Treatment for Co-Occuring Concerns

      Ginsburg, J. I. D., Mann, R. E., Rotgers, F., & Weekes, J. R. (2002). Motivational interviewing with criminal justice populations. In W. R. Miller & S. Rollnick (Eds.), Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change (2nd ., pp. 333-346). New York: Guilford Press.

      Goldstein, A. P., Glick, B., & Gibbs, J. C. (1998). Aggression Replacement Training: A comprehensive intervention for aggressive youth (revised edition), Champaign, IL: Research Press.

      Hatcher, R. M., Palmer, E. J., McGuire, J., Hounsome, J. C., Bilby, C. A. L., & Hollin, C. R. (2008). Aggression Replacement Training with adult male offenders within community settings: A reconviction analysis. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 19 (4), 517-532. doi:10.1080/14789940801936407

      Hembree-Kigin, T. L., & McNeil, C. (1995). Parent-child interaction therapy. New York: Plenum Press.

      Johnson, C. H., Mullins, L. & Walker, C. E. (2002). Elimination disorder. In M. Hersen (2002). Clinical behavior therapy: Adults and children. (pp. 434-448). New York, NY, US: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

      Koeppen, A.S. (1974). Relaxation training for children. Elementary School Guidance & Counseling, 9, 14-21.

      McGrath, R. J., Cumming, G. F., & Burchard, B. L., Zeoli, S. & Ellerby, L. (2010). Current practices and trends in sexual abuser management: The Safer Society 2009 nationwide survey. Brandon, VT: Safer Society.

      Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2002). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people to change addictive behavior (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.

      Nugent, W. R., Bruley, C., & Allen, P.(1998). The effects of Aggression Replacement Training on antisocial behaviour in a runaway shelter. Research on Social Work Practice, 8 (6), 637-656.

      Ondersma, S. J., & Walker, C. E. (1998). Elimination disorders. In T. H. Ollendick, & M. Hersen (Ed). Handbook of child psychopathology (3rd ed.). (pp. 355-378).

      Patterson, G. R., Reid, J. B., & Eddy, J. M. (2002). A brief history of the Oregon model. In J. B.

      Reid, G. R. Patterson, & J. J. Snyder (Eds.), Antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: A developmental analysis and model for intervention (pp. 3-20). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

      Sanders, M. R., Cann, W., & Markie-Dadds, C. (2003). The triple P-positive parenting programme: A universal population-level approach to the prevention of child abuse. Child Abuse Review, 12, 155-171.

      Walker, C. E. (1995). Elimination disorders: Enuresis and encopresis. In M.C. Roberts (Ed). Handbook of pediatric psychology (2nd ed.). (pp. 537-557).

      Webster-Stratton, C. (2005). The incredible years: A training series for the prevention and treatment of conduct problems in young children. In E. D. Hibbs & P. S. Jensen (Eds.), Psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent disorders: Empirically based strategies for clinical practice (2nd ed., pp. 507-555).

    • Standards of Care

      American Psychological Association. (2010). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Retrieved from http://apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx.

      Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers. (2012). Adolescents who have engaged in sexually abusive behavior: Effective policies and practices. http://www.atsa.com/adolescents-engaged-in-sexually-abusive-behavior

      Chaffin, M., Berliner, L., Block, R., Johnson, T. C., Friedrich, W., Louis, D., Lyon, T. D., Page, J., Prescott, D., & Silovsky, J.F. (2008). Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers Task Force Report on Children with Sexual Behavior Problems. Child Maltreatment, 13, 199-218. doi:10.1177/1077559507306718

      Miner M, Borduin C, Prescott D, Bovensmann H, Schepker R, Du Bois R, et al. (2006). Standards of care for juvenile sexual offenders of the International Association for the Treatment of Sexual Offenders. Sexual Offender Treatment,1, 1–7.

    • Public Policy

      Andrews, D.A., & Bonta, J. (2010). Rehabilitating criminal justice policy and practice. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 16(1), 39–55

      Aos, S., M. Miller, & E. Drake. (2006). Evidence-Based Public Policy Options to Reduce Future Prison Construction, Criminal Justice Costs, and Crime Rates. Olympia: Washington State Institute for Public Policy, Document No. 06-10-1201. doi:10.1080/15564880802612615

      Batastini, A. B., Hunt, E., Present-Koller, J., & DeMatteo, D. (2011). Federal standards for community registration of juvenile sex offenders: An evaluation of risk prediction and future implications. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 17, 451-474.

      Caldwell, M. F., & Dickinson, C. (2009). Sex offender registration and recidivism risk in juvenile sexual offenders. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 27, 941-956.

      Caldwell, M. F. & Van Rybroek, G. (2005) Reducing violence in serious and violent juvenile offenders using an intensive treatment program. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 28, 622 – 636.

      Chaffin, M. (2008). Our minds are made up—don’t confuse us with the facts: Commentary on policies concerning children with sexual behavior problems and juvenile sex offenders. Child Maltreatment, 13(2), 110-121

      Chaffin, M., & Bonner, B. (1998). Don’t shoot, we’re your children: Have we gone too far in our response to adolescent sexual abusers and children with sexual behavior problems? Child Maltreatment, 3, 314-316.

      Cross, T. P., & Saxe, L. (2001). Polygraph testing and sexual abuse: The lure of the magic lasso. Child Maltreatment, 6, 195–206. doi:10.1177/1077559501006003001

      Harris, A. J., Walfield, S., Shields, R. T., & Letourneau, E. J. (in press). Collateral consequences of juvenile sex offender registration and notification: Results from a survey of treatment providers. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment.

      Hunter, J. A., Gilbertson, S. A., Vedros, D., & Morton, M. (2004). Strengthening community-based programming for juvenile sex offenders: Key concepts and paradigm shifts. Child Maltreatment, 9, 177-189. doi:10.1177/1077559504264261

      Juvenile Law Center. (n.d.). Current initiatives. Retrieved July 29, 2014, from http://www.jlc.org/current-initiatives/improving-outcomes-court-involved....

      Letourneau E. J., Armstrong, K.S. (2008). Recidivism rates for registered and nonregistered juvenile sexual offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 20(4), 393-408.

      Letourneau, E.J., Armstrong, K.S., Bandyopadhyay, D., & Sinha, D. (2013). Sex offender registration and notification policy increases juvenile plea bargins. Sexual Abuse: Journal of Research and Treatment, 25, 189-207.

      Letourneau, E. J., Bandyopadhyay, D., Armstrong, K. S., & Sinha, D. (2010). Do sex offender registration and notification requirements deter juvenile sex crimes? Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37, 553-569.

      Letourneau, E. J., Bandyopadhyay, D., Armstrong, K. S., & Sinha, D. (2010). Do sex offender registration and notification requirements deter juvenile sex crimes? Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37, 553-569.

      Letourneau E. J., Bandyopadhyay, D., Sinha, D., & Armstrong, K.S. (2009). The Influence of Sex Offender Registration on Juvenile Sexual Recidivism Criminal Justice Policy Review , 20(2), 136-153. doi: 10.1177/0887403408327917

      Letourneau, E. J., Bandyopadhyay, D., Sinha, D., & Armstrong, K. S. (2009b). The effects of sex offender registration policies on juvenile justice decision making. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 21, 149-165.

      Letourneau, E. J., & Caldwell, M. F. (2013). Expensive, harmful policies that don’t work or how juvenile sexual offending is addressed in the U.S. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 8, 25-31.

      Letourneau, E. J., Caldwell, M. F., & Shields, R.T. (2016). Comments on the supplemental guidelines for juvenile registration under the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act; Docket no. OAG 151; AG Order No. 3659-2016.

      Letourneau, E. J., Harris, A., J., Shields, R. T., Walfield, S., & Kahn, G. (2016). Death and destruction: The effects of sex offender registration on youth. Unpublished manuscript.

      Letourneau, E. J., & Miner, M. H. (2005). Juvenile sex offenders:  A case against the legal and clinical status quo. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 17, 313-331.

      McPhatter, A.R. (1997). Cultural competence in child welfare: What is it? How do we achieve it? What happens without it?. Child Welfare, 76(1) 255-278.

      Meijer, E. H., Berschuere, B., Merckelback, H. L. G. J., &. Crombez, G. (2008). Sex offender management using the polygraph: A critical review. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 31(5), 423-9. doi:10.1016/j.ijlp.2008.08.007

      National Research Council (2003). The polygraph and lie detection. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.

      ParentFurther. (n.d.). Retrieved July 29, 2014, from http://www.parentfurther.com/

      Pithers, W. D., & Gray, A. (1998). The other half of the story: Children with sexual behavior problems. Psychology, Public Policy, and the Law, 4(1/2), 200-217

      Pittman, N. (2013). Raised on the Registry: The Irreparable harm of placing children on the sex offender registry in the US. Human Rights Watch.

      Pittman, N. & Nugent, Q. (2011). A snapshot of juvenile sex offender: Registration and notification laws A Survey of the United States. Defender Association of Philadelphia.

      Rinehart, J. K., Armstrong, K. S., Shields, R. T., & Letourneau, E. J. (in press). The effects of transfer laws on youth with violent offenses. Criminal Justice and Behavior.

      Scott, E., & Grisso, T. (1997). The evolution of adolescence: A developmental perspective on juvenile justice reform. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 88, 137-189.

      SORNA. (n.d.). Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking. Retrieved from http://ojp.gov/smart/sorna.htm

      Trivits, L. C., & Repucci, N. D. (2002). Application of Megan’s Law to juveniles. American Psychologist, 57, 690-704. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.57.9.690

    • Technology Use

      Baumgartner, S. E., Sumter, S. R., Peter, J., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2012). Identifying teens at risk: Developmental pathways of online and offline sexual risk behavior. Pediatrics, 130, e1489-1496. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-0842. 

      Braun-Courville, D. K., & Rojas, M. (2009). Exposure to sexually explicit web sites and adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45, 156-162. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.12.004 

      Houck, C. D., Barker, D., Rizzo, C., Hancock, E., Norton, A., & Brown, L. K. (2014). Sexting and sexual behavior in at-risk adolescents. Pediatrics, 133, e276-282. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-1157 

      Judge, A. M. (2012). "Sexting" among U.S. adolescents: Psychological and legal perspectives. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 20, 86-96. doi:10.3109/10673229.2012.677360

      Klettke, B., Hallford, D. J., & Mellor, D. J. (2014). Sexting prevalence and correlates: A systematic literature review. Clinical Psychology Review, 34, 44-53. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2013.10.007 

      Livingstone, S., & Görzig, A. (2014). When adolescents receive sexual messages on the internet: Explaining experiences of risk and harm. Computers in Human Behavior, 33, 8-15. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2013.12.021 

      Mitchell, K. J., Finkelhor, D., Jones, L. M., & Wolak, J. (2012). Prevalence and characteristics of youth sexting: A national study. Pediatrics, 129, 13-20. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-1730 

      Rice, E., Gibbs, J., Winetrobe, H., Rhoades, H., Plant, A., Montoya, J., & Kordic, T. (2014). Sexting and sexual behavior among middle school students. Pediatrics, 134, e21-28. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-2991 

      Rice, E., Rhoades, H., Winetrobe, H., Sanchez, M., Montoya, J., Plant, A., & Kordic, T. (2012). Sexually explicit cell phone messaging associated with sexual risk among adolescents. Pediatrics, 130, 667-673. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-0021 

      Ricketts, M. L., Maloney, C., Marcum, C. D., & Higgins, G. E. (2014). The effect of internet related problems on the sexting behaviors of juveniles. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 40, 270-284. doi:10.1007/s12103-014-9247-5 

      Saleh, F. M., Grudzinskas, A., Judge, A. (20). Adolescent sexual behavior in the digital age: Considerations for clinicians, legal professionals, and educators. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 

      Strassberg, D. S., McKinnon, R. K., Sustaita, M. A., & Rullo, J. (2013). Sexting by high school students: An exploratory and descriptive study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42, 15-21. doi:10.1007/s10508-012-9969-8 

      Temple, J. R., & Choi, H. (2014). Longitudinal association between teen sexting and sexual behavior. Pediatrics, 134, e1287-1292. doi:10.1542/peds.2014-1974 

      Temple, J. R., Le, V. D., van den Berg, P., Ling, Y., Paul, J. A., & Temple, B. W. (2014). Brief report: Teen sexting and psychosocial health. Journal of Adolescence, 37, 33-36. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.10.008 

      Temple, J. R. T., Jonathan, A. P., Patricia van den, B., Vi Donna, L., Amy, M., & Brian, W. (2016). Teen sexting and its association with sexual behaviors. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 166, 828-833. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2012.835 

      Van Ouytsel, J., Ponnet, K., & Walrave, M. (2014). The associations between adolescents' consumption of pornography and music videos and their sexting behavior. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17, 772-778. doi:10.1089/cyber.2014.0365 

      Van Ouytsel, J., Walrave, M., Ponnet, K., & Heirman, W. (2015). The association between adolescent sexting, psychosocial difficulties, and risk behavior: Integrative review. Journal of School Nursing, 31(1), 54-69. doi:10.1177/1059840514541964 

      Vanden Abeele, M., Campbell, S. W., Eggermont, S., & Roe, K. (2014). Sexting, mobile porn use, and peer group dynamics: Boys' and girls' self-perceived popularity, need for popularity, and perceived peer pressure. Media Psychology, 17, 6-33. doi:10.1080/15213269.2013.801725 

      Wolak, J. & Finkelhor, D. (2011) Sexting: A typology. Durhan, NH: Crimes against Children Research Center.

      Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2014). "Sexting" and its relation to sexual activity and sexual risk behavior in a national survey of adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 55, 757-764. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.07.012